- 1 Is Brazil a democracy or republic?
- 2 Who rules Brazil?
- 3 What happened to Brazil in 2023?
- 4 Is Brazil a rich or Poor country?
- 5 Why do Brazilians leave their country?
- 6 Why is Brazil a federal republic?
What form of government is used in Brazil?
Federal government – Chamber of Deputies, the lower house Federal Senate, the upper house Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, based on representative democracy, The federal government has three independent branches : executive, legislative, and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the executive branch, headed by the President, advised by a Cabinet,
Is Brazil a republic or a Monarchy?
Fall – A few moments after signing the Golden Law, Princess Isabel is greeted from the central balcony of the City Palace by a huge crowd below in the street The nation enjoyed considerable international prestige during the final years of the Empire and had become an emerging power in the international arena.
- While Pedro II was receiving medical treatment in Europe, the parliament passed, and Princess Isabel signed on 13 May 1888, the Golden Law, which completely abolished slavery in Brazil.
- Predictions of economic and labor disruption caused by the abolition of slavery proved to be unfounded.
- Nonetheless, the end of slavery was the final blow to any remaining belief in the crown’s neutrality, and this resulted in an explicit shift of support to Republicanism by the ultraconservatives —themselves backed by rich and powerful coffee farmers who held great political, economic and social power in the country.
To avert a republican backlash, the government exploited the credit readily available to Brazil as a result of its prosperity to fuel further development. The government extended massive loans at favorable interest rates to plantation owners and lavishly granted titles and lesser honors to curry favor with influential political figures who had become disaffected.
The government also indirectly began to address the problem of the recalcitrant military by revitalizing the moribund National Guard, by then an entity which existed mostly only on paper. The measures taken by the government alarmed civilian republicans and the positivists in the military. The republicans saw that it would undercut support for their own aims, and were emboldened to further action.
The reorganization of the National Guard was begun by the cabinet in August 1889, and the creation of a rival force caused the dissidents among the officer corps to consider desperate measures. For both groups, republicans and military, it had become a case of “now or never”.
- Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country’s form of government, republicans began pressuring army officers to overthrow the monarchy.
- They launched a coup and instituted the republic on 15 November 1889.
- The few people who witnessed what occurred did not realize that it was a rebellion.
Historian Lídia Besouchet noted that, “arely has a revolution been so minor.” Throughout the coup Pedro II showed no emotion, as if unconcerned about the outcome. He dismissed all suggestions put forward by politicians and military leaders for quelling the rebellion.
The Emperor and his family were sent into exile on 17 November. Although there was significant monarchist reaction after the fall of the Empire, this was thoroughly suppressed, and neither Pedro II nor his daughter supported a restoration. Despite being unaware of the plans for a coup, once it occurred and in light of the Emperor’s passive acceptance of the situation, the political establishment supported the end of the monarchy in favor of a republic.
They were unaware that the goal of the coup leaders was the creation of a dictatorial republic rather than a presidential or parliamentary republic.
Is Brazil a democracy or republic?
Division of powers – Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, which is based on a representative democracy, The federal government has three independent branches : executive, legislative, and judicial. The Federal Constitution is the supreme law of Brazil.
- It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil and the federal government.
- It provides the framework for the organization of the Brazilian government and for the relationship of the federal government to the states, to citizens, and to all people within Brazil.
Executive power is exercised by the executive, headed by the President, advised by a Cabinet of Ministers, The President is both the head of state and the head of government, Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies,
How politically free is Brazil?
Brazil has a comprehensive legal framework that protects freedom of thought, freedom of association and freedom of expression, including in the Internet – all of which are essential to a healthy and well-functioning democracy.
Is Brazil a free country?
Human rights in Brazil include the right to life and freedom of speech ; and condemnation of slavery and torture. The nation ratified the American Convention on Human Rights, The 2017 Freedom in the World report by Freedom House gives Brazil a score of “2” for both political rights and civil liberties; “1” represents the most free, and “7”, the least.
However, the following human rights problems have been reported: torture of detainees and inmates by police and prison security forces; inability to protect witnesses involved in criminal cases; harsh conditions; prolonged pretrial detention and inordinate delays of trials; reluctance to prosecute as well as inefficiency in prosecuting government officials for corruption ; violence and discrimination against women; violence against children, including sexual abuse ; human trafficking; police brutality; discrimination against black and indigenous people; failure to enforce labour laws; and child labour in the informal sector,
Human rights violators often enjoy impunity. According to UNESCO, “Brazil promotes a vast array of actions for the advancement and defense of human rights, even though it faces enormous social and economic inequalities”.
Do Brazilians want a monarchy?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Coat of arms of the House of Orléans-Braganza, the Brazilian imperial family The movement for the re-adoption of monarchy in Brazil has taken place as a series of uprisings and political acts, usually in a fragmented way and peripherally to larger causes.
Why did Brazil stop being a monarchy?
Brazil had progressed considerably under Pedro II’s wise guidance. Its population grew from 4,000,000 to 14,000,000, its public revenues increased 14-fold, the value of its exports rose 10-fold, and the nation’s newly constructed railroads extended more than 5,000 miles (8,000 km).
- Immigration also increased, with more than 100,000 entering Brazil in 1889 alone.
- Yet people were generally dissatisfied.
- Many historians have ascribed the fall of the monarchy to a restive military, a brooding landed aristocracy, and a resentful clergy.
- Indeed, those three powerful groups were increasingly critical of the emperor.
Perhaps more pertinent, however, was the stress placed on the traditional social structure in the late 19th century, owing to a widening gulf between the elites in the neo-feudal countryside and the more progressive urban residents and coffee planters.
Members of the urban middle class, the military, and the coffee planters believed that the monarchy represented the past and was too closely tied to the landed elite. They reasoned that a republic better suited the goals of Brazil’s emerging capitalist system, which increasingly was based on coffee and industrial production.
A civil-military conspiracy formed, and military officers carried out a coup on November 15, 1889. Pedro II abdicated and went into exile in Europe. The abolition of slavery in 1888 and the overthrow of the monarchy in 1889 terminated the two major institutions that had shaped Brazil’s past; in so doing they initiated a period of social, economic, and political change that accelerated modernization.
Who rules Brazil?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|President of the Federative Republic of Brazil|
|Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil|
|Coat of arms of Brazil|
|Presidential standard of Brazil|
|Incumbent Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva since 1 January 2023|
|Federal government of Brazil|
|Status||Head of state Head of government|
|Member of||Cabinet National Defense Council Council of the Republic|
|Residence||Palácio da Alvorada|
|Appointer||Direct popular vote ( two rounds if necessary)|
|Term length||Four years, renewable once consecutively|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of Brazil|
|Precursor||Emperor of Brazil (as Head of State) President of the Council of Ministers of Brazil (as Head of Government)|
|Inaugural holder||Deodoro da Fonseca|
|Formation||Proclamation of the Republic 15 November 1889|
|Succession||Line of succession|
|Deputy||Vice President of Brazil|
|Salary||R$ 402,151/US$ 76,309 annually|
The president of Brazil ( Portuguese : presidente do Brasil ), officially the president of the Federative Republic of Brazil ( Portuguese : presidente da República Federativa do Brasil ) or simply the President of the Republic, is the head of state and head of government of Brazil,
The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces, The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d’état against Emperor Pedro II, Since then, Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, and three democratic periods.
During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory, The Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election.
What happened to Brazil in 2023?
Background – During Bolsonaro’s tenure as president of Brazil, his allies and supporters floated the idea of an assault like the United States Capitol attack of 6 January 2021 in the event he lost his re-election bid. Bolsonaro supporters alleged that the 2022 Brazilian general election suffered from widespread electoral fraud that caused Bolsonaro’s loss.
- They claimed electronic voting machine malfunctions and deemed some voting patterns suspicious, and mistrusted election officials.
- The military helped oversee the election and found no signs of fraud.
- Supporters of Bolsonaro used social media to spread misinformation about supposed electoral fraud, further motivating the protesters.
Some military reservists voiced support for a truckers’ strike before the second round of elections, including Colonel Marcos Koury, who, on 16 October 2022, published a video encouraging a truckers’ general strike before the second round. Koury’s video about the shutdowns was shared in several Pro-Bolsonaro groups on WhatsApp, Telegram, Facebook and other social media websites, and, days later, members of these same groups started defending roadblocks after the elections.
- Calls for strikes were also made on YouTube, TikTok, Twitter and Instagram,
- Trucker protests lost strength on 3 November 2022, and Bolsonaro supporters began to gather in the vicinity of Brazilian Armed Forces facilities.
- Demonstrations took place at military installations in the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasília, Florianópolis, Recife, Salvador, and other cities and regions.
In Brasília, a group had camped in front of the Army Headquarters, demanding that the Armed Forces carry out a military coup; in January, Lula’s government attempted to remove these protesters and, when this failed, ordered reinforced security. That week, the minister of justice also reiterated that the camps would be dismantled. Protest camp in front of the Brazilian Army ‘s barracks in Ilhéus, Bahia. The electoral victory of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula) was officially ratified by the Superior Electoral Court on 12 December 2022. Militant far-right Bolsonaro supporters stormed the Federal Police headquarters in Brasília and torched vehicles on the street after one of the protesters was arrested for inciting violence to prevent Lula’s swearing-in.
The police used stun grenades and tear gas to disperse them. A bombing attempt near Brasília International Airport was prevented by the police on 23 December; the suspect was arrested a day later. According to his testimony, he was motivated by Bolsonaro casting doubts on the integrity of the election process in the past.
Other attempted attacks were carried out by Bolsonaro supporters after the election and during the beginning of Lula’s government, including the case of a man who was arrested while attempting to enter the ministries’ esplanade carrying a knife and an explosive device (presumably fireworks) during Lula’s inauguration.
What is crime like in Brazil?
Recent data shows that Brazil recorded 40,824 homicides in 2022 — an average of 111 violent deaths per day. This is high, the equivalent of one out of every five homicides in the world occurring in Brazil. But it is also a 1 percent decrease from the previous year, and the lowest number in the historical series dating back to 2007.
- At first glance, this seems to lend credence to far-right former President Jair Bolsonaro’s view on fighting crime.
- He advocated the indiscriminate use of firearms by the general population as a policy to curb violence.
- Criminals would “think twice” before robbing an “armed, law-abiding citizen,” he argued.
Gun registrations increased by nearly 80 percent between 2019 and 2022, the duration of Mr. Bolsonaro’s term. However, experts deny that the drop in homicides last year is linked to Mr. Bolsonaro’s pro-gun, tough-on-crime discourse. Another important reason is the cooling off of the urban war between drug gangs that has raged in Brazil’s urban peripheries since the 1980s, particularly in the largest cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and which has been characterized by bloody disputes over territory and markets.
Is Brazil a rich or Poor country?
|Currency||Brazilian real (BRL, R$ )|
|Fiscal year||1 January – 31 December|
|Trade organizations||WTO, BRICS, Mercosul, G-20 and others|
|Population||203 million (2023)|
|GDP per capita||
|GDP per capita rank||
|GDP by sector||
|Inflation ( CPI )||5.27% (2022)|
|Population below poverty line||
|Gini coefficient||53.4 high (2021)|
|Human Development Index||
0.754 high (2021)
( 88th )
|Labor force by occupation||
8.3% (October 2022)
|Ease-of-doing-business rank||124th (medium, 2020)|
|Exports||$308.8 billion (2022)|
|Export goods||Aircraft, steel, machinery, transport equipment, automobiles, vehicle parts, soybeans, iron ore, pulp (cellulose), maize, beef, chicken meat, soybean meal, sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton, orange juice, footwear, gold, ethanol, semi-finished iron|
|Main export partners||
|Imports||$250.8 billion (2022)|
|Import goods||Machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics|
|Main import partners||
|FDI stock||$72 billion (2019)|
|Current account||−$5,890.7 billion (2021)|
|Gross external debt||$325 billion (2022)|
|Government debt||76.8% of GDP (2022)|
|Budget balance||0.4% (of GDP) (2021)|
|Revenues||$382.6 billion (2022)|
|Expenses||$319.4 billion (2022)|
|Foreign reserves||$327 billion (2022)|
|Main data source: CIA World Fact Book All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars,|
The economy of Brazil is historically the largest in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere in nominal terms. The Brazilian economy is the third largest in the Americas, The economy is a middle income developing mixed economy, In 2022, according to International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brazil has the 10th largest gross domestic product (GDP) in the world and has the 8th largest purchasing power parity in the world.
In 2022, according to International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brazilian nominal GDP was US$1.894 trillion, the country has a long history of being among the ten largest economies in the world. The GDP per capita was US$8,857 per inhabitant. The country is rich in natural resources, From 2000 to 2012, Brazil was one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world, with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5%.
Its GDP surpassed that of the United Kingdom in 2012, temporarily making Brazil the world’s sixth-largest economy. However, Brazil’s economic growth decelerated in 2013 and the country entered a recession in 2014, The economy started to recover in 2017, with a 1% growth in the first quarter, followed by a 0.3% growth in second quarter compared to the same period of the previous year.
It officially exited the recession. According to the World Economic Forum, Brazil was the top country in upward evolution of competitiveness in 2009, gaining eight positions among other countries, overcoming Russia for the first time, and partially closing the competitiveness gap with India and China among the BRICS economies.
Important steps taken since the 1990s toward fiscal sustainability, as well as measures taken to liberalize and open the economy, have significantly boosted the country’s competitiveness fundamentals, providing a better environment for private-sector development.
In 2020, Forbes ranked Brazil as having the 7th largest number of billionaires in the world. Brazil is a member of diverse economic organizations, such as Mercosur, Prosur, G8+5, G20, WTO, Paris Club, Cairns Group, and is advanced to be a permanent member of the OECD, From a colony focused on primary sector goods (sugar, gold and cotton), Brazil managed to create a diversified industrial base during the 20th century.
The steel industry is a prime example of that, with Brazil being the 9th largest steel producer in 2018, and the 5th largest steel net exporter in 2018. Gerdau is the largest producer of long steel in the Americas, and Vale is the largest producer of iron ore in the world.
What is the most free country in the world?
Introduction – The human freedom index is a measure that quantifies the level of personal, civil, and economic freedoms in a country. It takes into account various factors such as the rule of law, property rights, freedom of speech and religion, and access to economic opportunities.
Switzerland ranks first with a human freedom index of 9.11, followed closely by New Zealand at 9.01 and Denmark at 8.98. These countries consistently rank high in terms of personal and economic freedoms, demonstrating a strong commitment to individual rights and free market principles. On the other end of the spectrum, countries like Syria, Venezuela, and Yemen have the lowest human freedom index scores, with scores of 3.66, 4.03, and 4.08, respectively.
These countries are plagued by political instability, authoritarian regimes, and severe restrictions on personal and economic freedoms. European countries, particularly those in Western Europe, tend to rank higher on the index, reflecting a tradition of democratic governance and respect for individual rights.
Why is Brazil crime rate so high?
Table 1 – Worldwide homicide rates in 2008 and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) caused by violence in 2004.
|Homicides (per 100,000)||DALY (thousands)|
|High income countries||2.7||886,297|
|Low–middle income countries||Africa||20.1||6,333,294|
|El Salvador (2)||54.9||113|
|Côte d’Ivoire (3)||52.5||324|
|South Africa (17)||27.3||1006|
|Russian Federation (39)||18.4||1276|
|United States of America (93)||6.2||599|
|United Kingdom (162)||1.1||33|
Fig.2 shows the enormous escalation in recorded homicide rates in Brazil over the last three decades. Homicides per 100,000 increased from 11.7 in 1980 to a peak of 28.9 in 2003, followed by a slight decline thereafter to 26.2 in 2010. There were 50,000 homicides in Brazil in 2010. Homicide trends in Brazil 1980–2010. Source: Brazilian System of Death Registration (SIM), Department of Public Health Information (DATASUS). Estimated homicide rates modeled by Daniel Cerqueira (see Cerqueira, 2012, for details of methodology). Modeled data, accounting for deaths by external causes with unknown intent, show that actual homicide rates in Brazil may be significantly higher than recorded figures (see years 1996–2010 in Fig.2 ).
The estimated homicide rate in 2010 was 31.5 homicides per 100,000 people (compared to the recorded rate of 26.2). Fig.2 also shows that changes in the total homicide rate followed in lock step with changes in the rate of homicide caused by firearms. Notably, after a steady increase in homicide rates during the 1990s and early 2000s there was a downturn from 2004 onwards, after disarmament legislation in 2003.
In contrast, the rate of homicide not involving firearms remained relatively stable from the mid-1980s onwards. Two studies evaluated longer-term trends in deaths by violence in Brazil. Vermelho and Jorge (1996) examined causes of death among 15–24 year olds in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo between 1930 and 1991.
- From the 1930s youth mortality rates fell as infectious diseases were controlled (infectious diseases had been the leading cause of death).
- However, from the 1960s, youth mortality rates actually increased again, with violence becoming the leading cause of death among 15–24 year olds.
- Barreto et al.
- 2011) also showed that the proportion of all deaths caused by violence in the whole of Brazil grew steadily from 1930 to 2007, while the proportion of deaths caused by infectious diseases decreased dramatically.
In Brazil, homicide victims are most likely to be young, male, Black, and with few years of education, as shown in the following statistics. In 2009, the male homicide rate (51.1 per 100,000) was over 10 times the female rate (4.3 per 100,000). The homicide rate was highest for black people (34.6), then indigenous (32.5), white (16.3) and people of Asian descent (6.8).
- By age group, rates were: 24.0 (10–19 years); 62.5 (20–29 years); 40.3 (30–39 years); 25.5 (40–49 years); 14.3 (50–59 years); and 9.2 (60 + years).
- Homicide rates by number of school years completed were: 30.3 (1–3 years) 36.1 (4–7 years), 13.1 (8–11 years), and 7.8 (12 + years).
- A series of careful examinations of the geography of Brazilian homicides shows that there are large regional variations in rates and trends ( Waiselfisz, 2007, 2008, 2010 ).
Until 1999, the highest rates of homicide were concentrated in state capitals and metropolitan regions; however, thereafter, rates stabilized in those areas (mainly in São Paulo) in contrast to a persistent upturn in interior and countryside regions.
Is there freedom of speech in Brazil?
Article 5 – Article 5 of the Constitution of Brazil encodes freedom of speech as a constitutional right. The Article was approved along with the Constitution of Brazil in 1988. Article 5: All are equal before the law, without distinction whatsoever, guaranteeing Brazilians and foreigners residing in the country the inviolable right to life, liberty, equality, security and property, as follows: IV – the expression of thought is free, anonymity being forbidden; IX – are free the expression of intellectual, artistic, scientific and communication, regardless of censorship or license;
Is Brazil considered 1st world?
Criticism of the First World Designation – Controversy exists around the use of the term “first world” to describe democratic countries in comparison with developing nations and those with political regimes that do not align with Western nations’. There is a tendency toward using the phrase as a way to rank some nations above others in terms of geopolitical significance.
Such references can lead to divisive tension in international relations, especially as developing nations seek to negotiate with so-called first world countries or appeal to the international community for support of their causes. It is not uncommon for first world nations to press for international policies, especially economic ones, that will favor their industries and trade to protect or enhance their wealth and stability.
This can include efforts to influence decisions made in such forums as the United Nations or the World Trade Organization (WTO), Designation as a first world nation does not necessarily mean a country has local access to certain luxuries or resources that are in demand.
For example, oil production is a staple industry in many countries that historically have not been regarded as first world nations. Brazil, for instance, contributes substantial amounts of oil to the overall world supply, along with other forms of production; however, the country is recognized as a developing, industrialized state rather than as a first world nation.
In contemporary parlance, “developed” or “industrialized” nation is considered a preferable term to “first world country.”
Is Brazil an open minded country?
Brazil is a multicultural and very open-minded country. Foreign business people are generally greeted warmly and with great interest. Brazilians are, however, not easily impressed. Their strong self-confidence breeds their attitude, ‘We are who we are’.
What are the major problems in Brazil?
Crime in Brazil – The scene of a murder in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil has serious problems with crime. With roughly 23.8 homicides per 100,000 residents, muggings, robberies, kidnappings and gang violence are common. Police brutality and corruption are widespread. In response, the Brazilian government established the National Public Security Force (FNSP) in June 2004 by the Ministry of Justice, to act in situations of emergency, in times of crisis.
More than 800,000 people were murdered in Brazil between 1980 and 2004. There were a total of 63,880 murders in Brazil in 2018. The data show that the country had 41,069 murders in 2021, the lowest number in the entire historical series, which started in 2007, there were 3,049 fewer deaths compared to 2020, a drop of 7%, 21 states in the country had a reduction in murders in the year the biggest drop was registered in the state of Acre, with less than 38% in the number of homicides.
About 6 states of the federation had an increase in violent deaths – 4 of them are in the North region. the North was the only region of the country that recorded a rise in murders, with 10% the highest increase was registered in Amazonas, with 54%. Specialists from the Center for the Study of Violence at the University of São Paulo and the Brazilian Public Security Forum list some points to explain the numbers: Greater organization of criminal groups that sell drugs, thus promoting the reduction of violent crimes; Greater government control and influence over criminals; Settlement of conflicts between factions; Creation of public policy programs focused on combating specific crimes; Reduction in the number of young people in the population; Creation of a federal public security system, changes in the rules for transferring public funds, Even so, a series of problems persist in the country related to the excessive bureaucracy of the justice system, with successive increases in public investment in security forces, but with a lack of organization in the direction of these investments (management and control ), especially with a lack of investment in the area of intelligence and also with a lack of investment in crime prevention.
Still, Brazil needs improvements in the professionalization and organization of the public security system, from investigation to prosecution. penal law, as well as the country’s own ability to effectively promote penalization in an effective way. Several penal reforms have been carried out year after year, since the country’s redemocratization (1985), with the objective of promoting the decriminalization and reintegration of prisoners into society, however, in part due to the seriousness of Brazil’s social problems and the low effectiveness of the justice system, only the most visible and violent behaviors are punished, especially among the poorest.
The punishment of white collar crimes is the exception, usually occurring in high profile cases.
Why is Brazil so loved?
Brazil – After travelling for many years, and living in many countries (and visiting a few others) I can say that my favourite country in the world (at least so far) is Brazil. I’ve been there 3 times and will continue to go back as often as I can. There are lots of great things in Brazil; the tropical climate, the food, the drinks, the Carnaval and parties, the dances, their passion for sport, the vast range of nature, the amazing mix of European/South American/African cultures and skin colour, the beaches, and so much more.
But this isn’t what actually keeps bringing me back, and it isn’t the reason I am so passionate about the language. The reason I like Brazil so much is plain and simple; it has the coolest people on the planet ! I am so passionate about this belief, that the purpose of one of my last visits was to become Brazilian and see if I can understand them better by emulating them; imitation is, after all, the best form of flattery! As I did this, I was able to communicate even better with them and get to know the culture I love so much even more.
Today I want to share some of these reasons that I love them so much with you, so you can understand my passion for this mission!
Why do Brazilians leave their country?
While their individual paths into the U.S. differ, the immigrants’ reasons for leaving Brazil are similar: personal safety, a better financial situation, and a lack of hope that their home country will one day be able to offer the opportunities they find here.
What type of government is Rio de Janeiro?
Government. The municipality of Rio de Janeiro is governed by a mayor (prefeito) with the assistance of secretaries who head administrative departments. Since 1984 the mayor has been popularly elected to a four-year term.
Why is Brazil a federal republic?
Federal Countries Brazil won its independence from Portugal in 1822 and initially became a monarchy with a unitary form of government. Slavery was abolished in 1888, and a republican alliance deposed the king in 1889, proclaiming Brazil a federal country.
- The Brazilian Revolution of 1930 reduced the autonomy of Brazil’s states.
- When the ruling regime was overthrown by the military in 1945, the federal system was reinstalled along with an electoral system that included competitive nation-wide parties for the first time in the history of the republic.
- The military regime that took power in 1964 retained an emasculated form of the federal system, but when democracy returned in 1985 the new federal government allowed direct elections for the state governments.
The increased predominance of state interests in the federal regime culminated in the creation of the Constitutional Assembly (1987-88), in which the state and municipal governments consolidated the process of fiscal decentralization initiated in the late 1970s.