What Time Does Caliber Collision Open?

What Time Does Caliber Collision Open

When did caliber start?

LEWISVILLE, Texas-( BUSINESS WIRE )-The Caliber family of brands, including Caliber Collision, alongside Caliber Auto Care and Caliber Auto Glass, celebrates 25 years as one of the nation’s leading automotive services providers. Caliber has built its business using its foundational purpose, Restoring the Rhythm of Your Life®, as a guide to connecting with teammates, customers and the communities it serves – proudly restoring the rhythm to more than nine million customers since its inception.

Caliber’s first collision centers opened in California in 1997. Over the following 25 years, Caliber grew to more than 1,450 locations in 40 states and continued growing by investing in complementary automotive service brands Caliber Auto Care and Caliber Auto Glass. “At Caliber, we live our purpose of Restoring the Rhythm of Your Life® each day.

This means focusing on our teammates, customers and communities,” said Caliber CEO and President Mark Sanders. “We are grateful to celebrate this milestone with our Caliber family, which has fueled our success and growth.” Restoring the Rhythm of Your Life® for teammates is about offering opportunities for long-term growth and unlimited earning potential in a fulfilling career – supported by industry-leading training such as I-CAR and ASE certifications and leadership development.

more than 24.5 million meals over the past ten years to feed children who lose access to school lunches during the summer more than $6 million to the American Heart Association for heart disease and stroke research and prevention more than 500 cars, with NABC Recycled Rides®, gifted to veterans, active-duty military first responders, critical front-line workers and others in need of reliable transportation more than $3 million in COVID-19 pandemic financial relief to support current and former teammates

“For the past 25 years, Caliber has earned a leadership position in the industry and a place in the lives of our teammates, customers and communities, and I look forward to building Caliber’s future with our highly dedicated teammates over the next 25 years,” said Sanders.

To hear from Caliber teammates and learn more, visit https://www.caliber.com/25th-anniversary, About Caliber Founded in 1997, the Caliber portfolio of brands has grown to more than 1,450 centers nationwide and features a full range of complementary automotive services, including Caliber Collision, the nation’s largest auto collision repair provider across 40 states, Caliber Auto Care for mechanical repair and quick oil change services and Caliber Auto Glass for glass repair and replacement.

Caliber was recognized as the only company of its kind to make the Forbes 2021 list of “America’s Best Large Employers,” an honor awarded to companies with high employee satisfaction. Caliber was also the only auto service provider to receive an Inc.2021 Best in Business gold medal in the Extra Large Company (500+ employees) category, recognizing Caliber for going above and beyond to make a positive impact.

  1. With the purpose of Restoring the Rhythm of Your Life ®, Caliber’s more than 24,000 teammates are committed to getting customers back on the road safely—and back to the rhythm of their lives.
  2. Dedicated to providing an outstanding customer experience, Caliber continues to rank among the highest customer satisfaction scores in the industry.

Learn more about Caliber at Caliber.com,

Who is the largest collision repair company?

Biggest companies in the Car Body Shops industry in the US

Company Revenue ($m) 2023 Profit ($m) 2023
The Boyd Group Inc. 2,528.3 1,428.6
Driven Brands, Inc. 1,469.6 194.1
Caliber Collision Center 1,323.3 103.0

Who is the CEO of Caliber Collision?

David Simmons named incoming Caliber President and CEO. Subscribers need to be logged in to see rest of this article. Please Login to access. If you’re not a subscriber, click here for information on our satisfaction guaranteed subscription options.

Who did Caliber Collision merge with?

Caliber Collision and ABRA have officially closed their merger, creating a more than 1,000-shop national MSO with a presence spanning 37 states, the companies announced Tuesday. The news release Tuesday morning did not indicate whether the merged company was forced to divest any locations to pass Federal Trade Commission review.

  • However, the companies were confident last year that this wouldn’t occur.
  • We do not anticipate any issues in our highly-fragmented industry, with more than 30,000 auto body repair centers nationally,” merger spokesman JP Kaytrosh said in a December 2018 statement.
  • The new company will be called Caliber and led by Caliber CEO Steve Grimshaw.

Ironically, it’s actually ABRA’s parent company that’s buying Caliber: Hellman & Friedman will acquire a majority stake in the merged company, while Caliber owners Leonard Green Partners and OMERS Private Equity will keep minority shares. “We believe this merger represents the next evolution of the collision repair industry.

  1. The combination further enhances the companies’ best-in-class performance metrics, proven acquisition integration processes, strong relationships with insurance clients and career opportunities for our teammates,” Hellman & Friedman partner Erik Ragatz said in a statement.
  2. The combined company’s expanded suite of one-stop services, together with its culture dedicated to doing the right thing for customers, clients and teammates, represents the future of the collision repair industry.” “Caliber and Abra have very similar leadership philosophies and cultures.

Combining these two world-class organizations will allow us to offer our customers greater convenience of our best-in-class collision repair experience across 37 states and the District of Columbia,” Grimshaw said in a statement. “We plan on maintaining all existing centers from both companies as we embark on our journey to create one company with one operating model and one culture.

We plan on further strengthening our culture that strongly supports our teammates’ careers behind industry-leading development programs. And we remain committed to serving our valued insurance clients through the companies’ partnership programs, while enhancing their customers’ overall experience and complete satisfaction.

That ability to stay ahead of what’s next will be vital in an industry that becomes more complex every year.” We’ve asked spokesmen from the merger and Caliber for more details about what the transition will look like for ABRA shops and suppliers. Continue to check Repairer Driven News for updates.

“Going forward, the combined company will be investing even more in enhanced technologies, specialized resources and innovative processes to redefine world-class standards for quality repairs and customer service in the industry,” Caliber wrote in its news release. Caliber touted its ability to deliver “the first national lifetime warranty” and said it would deliver “even more offerings, including dedicated Non-Drive facilities, Express repair centers and Aluminum-certified and high-line centers.

The combined company will also offer glass repair, diagnostic scanning and calibration services and the broadest network of OEM-certified locations in the U.S.” Shops and insurers should take note of Caliber’s discussion of keeping up with vehicle technology and OEM certification here.

If the nation’s largest collision repair chain — one presumably still embracing the typical insurer-centric MSO business model — is focusing on these items, it means a) you probably should too and b) major insurers probably have grudgingly affirmed the existence of these trends, regardless of what theirs local adjusters claim.

For more on the merger, see our 2018 coverage:

Spokesman confident Caliber-ABRA will clear federal merger review; main question appears to be local markets Experts analyze impact of Caliber-ABRA deal on auto body DRP competition Plenty of market left for other collision repairers after merged Caliber-ABRA — at least for now Caliber to absorb ABRA, keep all 1,000 shops, span 37 states; revenues could be $3.5B Memo: Caliber Collision and ABRA to merge, become 1,000-location national MSO

Why is it called a caliber?

The general connection, then, is that in both watchmaking and gunmaking the term has a history of being used to denote diameter and in both cases, to some extent, has come to refer to a thing whose diameter was specified (maybe by metonymy).

What is the oldest gun bullet?

Transition to true guns – Hand cannon from the Chinese Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) In due course, the proportion of saltpeter in the propellant was increased to maximise its explosive power. To better withstand that explosive power, the paper and bamboo of which fire-lance barrels were originally made came to be replaced by metal.

  • And to take full advantage of that power, the shrapnel came to be replaced by projectiles whose size and shape filled the barrel more closely.
  • Fire lance barrels made of metal appeared by 1276.
  • Earlier in 1259 a pellet wad that filled the barrel was recorded to have been used as a fire lance projectile, making it the first recorded bullet in history.

With this, the three basic features of a gun were put in place: a barrel made of metal, high- nitrate gunpowder, and a projectile which totally occludes the muzzle so that the powder charge exerts its full potential in propellant effect. The metal barrel fire lances began to be used without the lance and became guns by the late 13th century.

  • Guns such as the hand cannon were being used in the Yuan dynasty by the 1280s.
  • Surviving cannons such as the Heilongjiang hand cannon and the Xanadu Gun have been found dating to the late 13th century and possibly earlier in the early 13th century.
  • In 1287, the Yuan dynasty deployed Jurchen troops with hand cannons to put down a rebellion by the Mongol prince Nayan,

The History of Yuan records that the cannons of Li Ting’s soldiers “caused great damage” and created “such confusion that the enemy soldiers attacked and killed each other.” The hand cannons were used again in the beginning of 1288. Li Ting’s “gun-soldiers” or chongzu ( 銃卒 ) carried the hand cannons “on their backs”.

  • The passage on the 1288 battle is also the first to use the name chong ( 銃 ) with the metal radical jin ( 金 ) for metal-barrel firearms.
  • Chong was used instead of the earlier and more ambiguous term huo tong (fire tube; 火筒 ), which may refer to the tubes of fire lances, proto-cannons, or signal flares.

Hand cannons may have been used in the Mongol invasions of Japan, Japanese descriptions of the invasions mention iron and bamboo pao causing “light and fire” and emitting 2–3,000 iron bullets. The Nihon Kokujokushi, written around 1300, mentions huo tong (fire tubes) at the Battle of Tsushima in 1274 and the second coastal assault led by Holdon in 1281.

What is the most expensive car part repair?

1. The engine – The most expensive part to repair is the car engine, Replacement of a car engine can cost upwards of $10,000 in a small car and even more in a truck or SUV. It may be better off to replace the car instead of just replacing the engine in some cases.

What car has the highest repair cost?

Written by Savvy Editorial Team Savvy’s content writing team are professionals with a wide and diverse range of industry experience and topic knowledge. We write across a broad spectrum of finance-related topics to provide our readers with informative resources to help them learn more about a certain area or enable them to decide on which product is best for their needs with careful comparison.

  • Meet the team behind the operation here.
  • Visit our authors page to meet Savvy’s expert writing team, committed to delivering informative and engaging content to help you make informed financial decisions.
  • Our authors, updated on August 4th, 2023 Fact checked At Savvy, we are committed to providing accurate information.

Our content undergoes a rigorous process of fact-checking before it is published. Learn more about our editorial policy. What Time Does Caliber Collision Open When it comes to owning a car, the most significant costs you’ll bear apart from the purchase price are registration & insurance, fuel, servicing, and tyres. Savvy has analysed the latest figures to determine which car brands are the most expensive to maintain.

BMW is the most expensive car brand to maintain, followed by Mercedes-Benz Besides loan repayments, rego & insurance, fuel, servicing, and tyres are biggest costs Hybrids are more expensive to buy – but one can save on fuel and servicing long-term

Though you may have your heart set on a certain vehicle, the costs to keep it in top working order can be prohibitive. What are the most expensive car brands to maintain? By thinking long term, you could save a lot of money in fuel, tyres, and servicing.

Rank Brand Cost Rank Brand Cost Rank Brand Cost
Rank 1 Brand BMW Cost $26,364 Rank 11 Brand Acura Cost $14,510 Rank 21 Brand GMC Cost $11,551
Rank 2 Brand Mecedes-Benz Cost $19,106 Rank 12 Brand Infiniti Cost $13,770 Rank 22 Brand Volkswagen Cost $11,551
Rank 3 Brand Cadillac Cost $18,512 Rank 13 Brand Ford Cost $13,474 Rank 23 Brand Nissan Cost $11,257
Rank 4 Brand Volvo Cost $18,512 Rank 14 Brand Kia Cost $13,030 Rank 24 Brand Mazda Cost $11,112
Rank 5 Brand Audi Cost $18,362 Rank 15 Brand Land Rover Cost $13,030 Rank 25 Brand Mini Cost $11,112
Rank 6 Brand Saturn Cost $18,362 Rank 16 Brand Chevrolet Cost $13,030 Rank 26 Brand Mitsubishi Cost $10,965
Rank 7 Brand Mercury Cost $17,767 Rank 17 Brand Buick Cost $12,734 Rank 27 Brand Honda Cost $10,669
Rank 8 Brand Pontiac Cost $17,471 Rank 18 Brand Jeep Cost $12,290 Rank 28 Brand Lexus Cost $10,373
Rank 9 Brand Chrysler Cost $15,693 Rank 19 Brand Subaru Cost $12,142 Rank 29 Brand Scion Cost $9,484
Rank 10 Brand Dodge Cost $15,693 Rank 20 Brand Hyundai Cost $12,142 Rank 30 Brand Toyota Cost $8,150

Source: Yourmechanic.com *Based on estimates of total car maintenance over 10 years ** All prices converted from USD to AUD; accurate as of 15/09/22 While the most expensive brands to maintain may come as little surprise, in this article, we’ll be looking at mainstream or mass-market cars, which form the majority of vehicles sold in Australia.

  • To determine the maintenance costs of each car, we are using RACV data from 2021.
  • Please note that fuel costs, interest rates, and other goods and services have risen significantly since 2021 due to a combination of economic factors.
  • We’ll look at average loan repayments; registration in Metro Victoria as a baseline and average comprehensive car insurance; average fuel costs; servicing; and tyres per month, as an average.

We’ll also break down the top three most expensive cars by category, and also show you the least expensive car to run in that category. How much do Australians spend on maintaining their cars? According to the Australian Automobile Association in Q2 of 2022, the average Australian household spends $1,583 on car servicing (including tyres) per year, which comprises about 8% of yearly transport costs.

Model Repayments Rego / Insurance Fuel Servicing Tyres Total
Model Toyota Yaris Ascent Sport Repayments $524.08 Rego / Insurance $157.83 Fuel $82.57 Servicing $22.50 Tyres $9.00 Total $795.97
Model Volkswagen Polo Trendline 70TSI Repayments $509.90 Rego / Insurance $168.16 Fuel $93.38 Servicing $48.25 Tyres $11.27 Total $830.95
Model Mazda 2 G15 Pure Repayments $542.88 Rego / Insurance $143.35 Fuel $89.31 Servicing $59.00 Tyres $10.33 Total $844.86

If you have deep pockets, the Mazda 2 G15 Pure is the one for you, coming in at $844.86 to run per month. The Polo and Yaris are distant second and third – though still edging closer to $1,000 than many other light cars. The least expensive light car to run is the MG3 Core 1.5 four-speed hatch, at a mere $626.50 per month. Which small cars are the most expensive to run

Model Repayments Rego / Insurance Fuel Servicing Tyres Total
Model Mazda 3 G20 Pure Repayments $592.78 Rego / Insurance $147.22 Fuel $104.47 Servicing $60.30 Tyres $10.33 Total $915.11
Model Skoda Scala Ambition 1.5 Turbo Repayments $665.23 Rego / Insurance $166.08 Fuel $102.71 Servicing $46.70 Tyres $11.67 Total $992.39
Model Hyundai Iconiq Premium Hybrid Repayments $835.86 Rego / Insurance $164.81 Fuel $57.29 Servicing $25.42 Tyres $12.33 Total $1,095.72

This one really bowled us over – the Hyundai hybrid cost the most to run per month out of the lot – though you’ll be saving money after you’re free and clear of the loan with that fuel cost ending up costing half as much as the competition. There’s not much in it between the Skoda and the Hyundai – but the extra $100 per month may pay for itself in the long run.

Model Repayments Rego / Insurance Fuel Servicing Tyres Total
Model Mazda 6 Sport 2.5 Repayments $744.74 Rego / Insurance $160.07 Fuel $117.95 Servicing $60.55 Tyres $14.33 Total $1,097.64
Model Honda Accord VTi-X 1.5 Turbo Repayments $1,107.10 Rego / Insurance $187.60 Fuel $109.53 Servicing $46.48 Tyres $16.60 Total $1,467.31
Model Honda Accord VTi-X 2.0 Hybrid Repayments $1,167.08 Rego / Insurance $188.35 Fuel $72.46 Servicing $45.17 Tyres $16.60 Total $1,489.65

It would seem that Mazda once again show up in the most expensive list, with the Mazda 6 Sport 2.5L weighing in at $1,097.64 – the Honda Accord VTi-X models tip the scales with $400 or so price bumps, but the Hybrid may prove the most cost-effective in the long run, using 25% less fuel than its 1.5L Turbo counterpart. Which small SUVs are the most expensive to run

Model Repayments Rego / Insurance Fuel Servicing Tyres Total
Model Mitsubishi Eclipse Cross ES Repayments $668.44 Rego / Insurance $179.49 Fuel $123.01 Servicing $28.92 Tyres $21.27 Total $1,021.12
Model Toyota C-HR GXL Repayments $669.67 Rego / Insurance $200.13 Fuel $123.26 Servicing $21.08 Tyres $15.27 Total $1,029.41
Model Subaru XV 2.0i AWD Repayments $656.44 Rego / Insurance $163.27 Fuel $136.59 Servicing $60.87 Tyres $16.33 Total $1,033.50

An all-new line-up emerges in the small SUV category with the Subaru XV just coming in as the most expensive by about four dollars. The gap widens to seven dollars between the Toyota and Mitsubishi – but the cheapest to run, the base model of the Hyundai Venue 1.6 2WD auto, is almost in a league of its own: $793.23. Which medium SUVs are the most expensive to run

Model Repayments Rego / Insurance Fuel Servicing Tyres Total
Model Hyundai Tucson Elite Repayments $928.03 Rego / Insurance $157.44 Fuel $101.04 Servicing $37.42 Tyres $19.27 Total $1,243.19
Model Honda CR-V VTi-L 1.5 Turbo Repayments $873.24 Rego / Insurance $197.55 Fuel $124.69 Servicing $46.55 Tyres $19.27 Total $1,261.29
Model Mazda CX-5 Maxx Sport Repayments $902.78 Rego / Insurance $169.48 Fuel $96.23 Servicing $91.07 Tyres $13.27 Total $1,272.82

Mazda re-enters the charts as one of the most expensive medium SUVs to run at $1,272.82 per month. Hyundai, which is usually at the cheaper end also makes an appearance at third most expensive. The top-selling Toyota RAV4 GXL Hybrid is the cheapest to maintain at $1,117.64. Which large SUVs are the most expensive to run

Model Repayments Rego / Insurance Fuel Servicing Tyres Total
Model Mazda CX-9 Sport AWD 2.5 Turbo Repayments $1,052.67 Rego / Insurance $191.10 Fuel $148.28 Servicing $74.42 Tyres $21.67 Total $1,488.13
Model Toyota Kluger GX 3.5 V6 AWD Repayments $1,084.32 Rego / Insurance $195.02 Fuel $164.34 Servicing $61.25 Tyres $20.33 Total $1,525.26
Model Hyundai Palisade 2.2 Turbo Diesel AWD Repayments $1,307.94 Rego / Insurance $170.46 Fuel $117.07 Servicing $45.25 Tyres $23.67 Total $1,664.39

The luxury model Hyundai Palisade 2.2L Turbo Diesel – which is surprisingly the cheapest when it comes to fuel consumption, tips the scale in repayments and overall costs. Servicing for the Mazda is the highest, while fuel for the beastly Toyota Kluger tops the chart.

Model Repayments Rego / Insurance Fuel Servicing Tyres Total
Model Ford Everest Ambiente 3.2 Turbo Diesel Repayments $1,156.64 Rego / Insurance $181.78 Fuel $136.32 Servicing $33.52 Tyres $16.33 Total $1,524.58
Model Toyota Prado GX 2.8 Turbo Diesel Repayments $1,248.09 Rego / Insurance $197.40 Fuel $126.70 Servicing $69.56 Tyres $16.33 Total $1,658.08
Model Nissan Y62 Patrol V8 Petrol Repayments $1,645.23 Rego / Insurance $291.61 Fuel $268.92 Servicing $107.23 Tyres $24.33 Total $2,337.33

Is it any surprise the Nissan Patrol with its beefy V8 engine guzzles the most fuel at $268.92? It’s also expensive to own, costing a whopping $2,337.33 to run each month, including loan repayments. Servicing is far and away the biggest expense too! The Ford Everest is almost eight hundred dollars cheaper to run by comparison. Which electric vehicles (EVs) are the most expensive to run

Model Repayments Rego / Insurance Fuel Servicing Tyres Total
Model Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV ES 2.1 Repayments $1,020.35 Rego / Insurance $182.59 Fuel $32.02 Servicing $35.75 Tyres $21.27 Total $1,291.97
Model Nissan Leaf EV Repayments $1,049.84 Rego / Insurance $188.27 Fuel $53.44 Servicing $30.73 Tyres $14.60 Total $1,336.87
Model Hyundai Kona Elite EV Repayments $1,266.03 Rego / Insurance $158.54 Fuel $40.94 Servicing $17.75 Tyres $11.93 Total $1,495.19

Now we come to the electric vehicles – which all have minuscule fuel and servicing requirements compared to their petrol driven cousins. The Outlander and Kona are both SUVs – and have slightly elevated running costs in comparison. However, when you factor out the repayments, EVs are far cheaper to run.

  • The MG ZS EV is the cheapest of the lot, costing $1,128.33 to run each month.
  • Are hybrids and electric vehicles cheaper in the long term? Savvy CEO Bill Tsouvalas says that sticking to smaller cars or hybrids can keep costs down – and despite the higher loan repayments, will reap rewards later.
  • The most expensive cars in this list, when they’re hybrids or electric vehicles, is the loan repayment component.

Servicing and fuel become almost trivial compared to petrol or diesel-powered cars, which is something you should keep in mind when shopping for new cars,” Sources:

www.yourmechanic.com/article/the-most-and-least-expensive-cars-to-maintain-by-maddy-martin www.racv.com.au/royalauto/transport/cars/victoria-cheapest-expensive-cars-2021.html https://data.aaa.asn.au/transport-affordability/

How many employees does Caliber have?

View Employees Caliber has 27,000 employees. View the comprehensive list of Caliber employees, their locations, business contact details and key personnel.

Is Caliber Collision a public company?

Description. Caliber Collision Center is a private company with an estimated 25,000 employees. In the US, the company has a notable market share in at least one industry: Car Body Shops, where they account for an estimated 2.2% of total industry revenue.

Who is Steve Grimshaw?

Steve Grimshaw is the Executive Chairman at Caliber Collision Centers. Additionally, Steve Grimshaw has had 1 past job as the President & CEO at Caliber Collision Centers.

Did Caliber buy Abra?

Caliber Collision and ABRA have officially closed their merger, creating a more than 1,000-shop national MSO with a presence spanning 37 states, the companies announced Tuesday.

Who bought out Caliber?

New Residential Investment Corp. to Acquire Caliber Home Loans, Inc. New Residential to combine NewRez and Caliber platforms into premier financial services company

Purchase Price to Book Multiple of 1.0x 1


• Adds $141 Billion UPB of MSRs


• Combination of Complementary and Leading Mortgage Platforms


• Broadens Customer Retention Efforts with Strong Recapture Platform


• Enhances Purchase Origination Capabilities with Extensive Retail Footprint


• Increases Asset Generation Capabilities and Opportunities


• Accretive to 2022 Return on Equity 2

NEW YORK—(BUSINESS WIRE)—New Residential Investment Corp. (NYSE: NRZ; “New Residential” or the “Company”) announced today that it has entered into a definitive agreement with an affiliate of Lone Star Funds (“Lone Star”) to acquire Caliber Home Loans, Inc.

  • Caliber”).
  • With this acquisition, New Residential intends to bring together the platforms of Caliber and NewRez LLC (“NewRez”), New Residential’s wholly owned mortgage originator and servicer.
  • The transaction is intended to close as quickly as possible, subject to various approvals and customary closing conditions, and is targeted for the third quarter of 2021.

“We believe this is a terrific acquisition for our Company,” said Michael Nierenberg, Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President of New Residential. “Over the years, Caliber’s experienced team has built a differentiated purchase-focused originator with an impressive retail franchise and solid track record in customer retention.

  • The combination of NewRez and Caliber’s platforms will create a premier financial services company with scale, talent, technologies and products to accelerate our mortgage company objectives and generate strong earnings for our shareholders.
  • With this acquisition, we have significantly strengthened our capabilities to perform across interest rate environments.” “We are excited to be joining the New Residential family,” said Sanjiv Das, Chief Executive Officer of Caliber.

“By combining platforms with NewRez, we will join another industry pioneer that has complementary strengths and is committed to delivering the dream of home ownership. Our combination of strategies will allow us to accelerate our leading position in purchase lending, grow our digital direct to consumer and broker initiatives, and further propel our retail franchise.

  • As we leverage our digitization investments, we will make the entire mortgage process faster, easier and more efficient.
  • We are thrilled to have the opportunity to deepen our customer relationships, expand our customer reach and provide more industry-leading products and options to our customers.” “This transaction is yet another important milestone for NewRez as we continue to expand our business, grow our customer reach and provide more options to support our homeowners and clients,” said Baron Silverstein, Chief Executive Officer of NewRez.

“Combining with Caliber’s platform emphasizes our commitment to positioning our business for long-term success while continuing to deliver significant value for our customers, our partners and our employees.”

Did New Rez and Caliber merge?

We believe trust, integrity, and sound practices are the cornerstones of any relationship, which is why we strive to be as transparent as possible when it comes to our practices and any business updates. We’re proud to have Caliber Home Loans as a member of the Newrez Family of Companies.

As part of the family, Newrez is here for your future home loan needs. With Newrez you will have all the benefits of working with one of the nation’s largest mortgage companies. We look forward to providing you with exceptional customer service and being your trusted financial partner for your next home loan.

Read below for more information.

What caliber is military?

DESCRIPTION – Small caliber ammunition is,50 caliber and below. Conventional small caliber ammunition in production and deployment consists of 5.56 mm, 7.62 mm, 9 mm, 10- and 12-gauge,,22 caliber,,30 caliber,,38 caliber,,45 caliber,,300 Winchester Magnum (WinMag) and,50 caliber.

The 5.56 mm cartridge is used in the M16 Rifle, M4 Carbine and M249 Squad Automatic Weapon. The 7.62 mm cartridge is used in the M240 Machine Gun, M24 Sniper Weapon System, M110 Semi-automatic Sniper System and the M14 Rifle. The 9 mm cartridge is fired in the M9, M17 and M18 Pistols. The M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle uses the,300 WinMag cartridge.

The M2 Machine Gun and the M107 Sniper Rifle use,50 caliber cartridges. The remaining small caliber ammunition is used in a variety of pistols, rifles and shotguns. Small caliber ammunition in research and development consists of Lightweight Case, advanced armor-piercing capabilities, reduced range ammunition, one-way luminescence trace ammunition, lead free primer, all-purpose tactical cartridge and next generation projectiles.

Is caliber American or British?

Language Caliber and calibre are both English terms. Usage Caliber is predominantly used in 🇺🇸 American (US) English ( en-US ) while calibre is predominantly used in 🇬🇧 British English (used in UK/AU/NZ) ( en-GB ). In terms of actual appearance and usage, here’s a breakdown by country, with usage level out of 100 (if available) 👇:

Term US UK India Philippines Canada Australia Liberia Ireland New Zealand Jamaica Trinidad & Tobago Guyana
caliber 87 31 61 62 63 28 0 41 39 72 64 100
calibre 13 69 39 38 37 72 0 59 61 28 36 0

ul> In the United States, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (87 to 13). In the United Kingdom, there is a 69 to 31 preference for ” calibre ” over “caliber”. In India, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (61 to 39). In the Philippines, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (62 to 38). In Canada, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (63 to 37). In Australia, there is a 72 to 28 preference for ” calibre ” over “caliber”. In Liberia, there is not enough data to determine a preference between “caliber” and “calibre”. In Ireland, there is a 59 to 41 preference for ” calibre ” over “caliber”. In New Zealand, there is a 61 to 39 preference for ” calibre ” over “caliber”. In Jamaica, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (72 to 28). In Trinidad & Tobago, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (64 to 36). In Guyana, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (100 to 0).

Examples Below, we provide some examples of when to use caliber or calibre with sample sentences. Trends 📈 See Trends Looking for a tool that handles this for you wherever you write? Get Sapling

What size are naval guns?

B-1 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS What You Should Know About Guns and Interior Ballistics As a Fire Control Technician you will not be concerned directly with your ship’s armament. You will not be called upon to maintain or repair the guns themselves, and only under emergency conditions will you be expected to operate them. Two very important elements of the fire control problem are a projectile’s initial speed and direction. You are interested, therefore, in gunpowder, guns and interior ballistics to the extent that you should become familiar with the factors which give a projectile its initial speed and direction.

  • The purpose of this section of instruction sheets is to tell you all you need to know about guns and interior ballistics.
  • You are not expected to be a ballistics expert or an ordnance designer after you finish reading this section, for these subjects are major studies in themselves.
  • A general understanding of basic theory, gun construction and familiarization with the terminology is all that is required.

B-2 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Gun Construction A gun is a tube capable of containing and controlling the explosion of a propelling gunpowder charge so as to discharge the projectile at a high velocity. The caliber of a gun is the inside diameter of its bore in inches or millimeters. All guns of 3-inch caliber and above have their length expressed in calibers immediately following the bore designation-a 3″/50 caliber gun has a 3-inch bore and is 50 calibers (150 inches) long. Guns used aboard Navy ships range in size from 16″/50 caliber guns on battleships, which can fire a projectile more than fifteen miles, to 20-mm automatic antiaircraft guns used aboard all Navy ships. The breech is the rear end of the gun into which the projectile and propelling charge are loaded. The barrel is the tube through which the projectile travels after the propelling charge is fired and which gives the projectile its initial direction. The yoke connects the barrel and breech to the recoil mechanism.

Part of the recoil mechanism may be mounted on the gun, but the recoil mechanism is primarily a part of the gun mount which will be discussed later. Guns are classified according to bore diameters: (1) major-caliber, 8 inches or larger; (2) intermediate-caliber, greater than 4 inches and less than 8 inches; (3) minor-caliber, greater than 0.60 inch but not more than 4 inches; (4) small arms, 0.60 inch or smaller.

We will not discuss small arms in these sheets because their fire control systems are simply sharp eyes and steady hands. B-3 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Gun Construction (continued) The bore of a gun is the interior of the barrel. It is uniform in diameter and extends from the chamber (which receives the projectile and propelling charge during loading) to the muzzle of the gun. The bore is “rifled,” which means that a series of twisted grooves are cut on its surface. The rifling imparts a spin to the projectile as it travels through the bore, and this spinning motion prevents the projectile from “tumbling” after it leaves the muzzle. You will learn more about this “tumbling” action when you study exterior ballistics. In order for a gun to discharge a projectile at high velocity, the force resulting from the explosion of the propelling charge must be exerted on the rear of the projectile. To accomplish this, guns are equipped with breech mechanisms which seal the breech of the gun during firing but which can be opened to allow reloading. Breech mechanisms may be very simple as on a single-shot rifle, or very complex as on a 18-inch gun, but they always serve the function of sealing the rear end of the gun tube during firing. B-4 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Gun Mounts and Turrets Guns must be mounted aboard ship in such a manner that they can be rotated horizontally (trained) and vertically (elevated). The mechanism which supports the gun and moves it in elevation and train is called the gun mount. The major components of a typical gun mount are the elevating mechanism, the traversing mechanism, the recoil mechanism, the trunnions, the carriage and the stand. The elevating mechanism may be power or hand driven and moves the gun in elevation; the traversing mechanism, also power or manually operated, traverses (trains) the weapon. The recoil mechanism absorbs the forces resulting from the explosion of the propelling charge and allows the gun to recoil (move to the rear).

The stand supports the entire gun and mount and is rigidly attached to the deck; the carriage rests and rotates on the stand so that the weapon can be traversed. The trunnions provide a pivot support between gun and carriage so that the gun can be elevated. B-5 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Gun Mounts and Turrets (continued) Most major-caliber guns (8″ and up) are mounted in heavily armored structures called “turrets.” Intermediate-caliber guns (over 4″ and less than 8″) are mounted in unarmored gun houses, or are provided with shields; minor-caliber guns (over 0.60″ to 4″) are shielded or simply mounted in the open.

A turret performs the same functions and has the same major components as the gun mounts discussed on the previous sheet. A turret differs from an ordinary mount in that it is heavily armored and fully enclosed. Two or three guns of 8-inch caliber or larger are mounted in a single turret. The rollers allow the gun girder (carriage) to traverse on the turret foundation (stand). The gun house provides armor protection for the gun crew, and the heavy armor of the barbette protects the lower turret components. Gun mounts and turrets differ widely in complexity and type, depending on the size, type and number of guns mounted.

It is hard to compare the free-swinging mount of the 20-mm antiaircraft gun (which has no elevating or traversing mechanisms) to the massive and intricate 16-inch gun turret, but they all serve the same basic function-to position the gun in accordance with fire control directions so that the projectile will hit the target.

B-6 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Characteristics of Explosives In order for a projectile to be fired from a weapon it is necessary that a force be exerted on the rear of the projectile. The stretched rubber band of a slingshot supplies the propelling force to a stone; the taut string of a bow exerts the force necessary to launch an arrow toward the target. “Gunpowder” is a term applied to a family of explosive substances which when ignited burn very rapidly, liberating large volumes of high-temperature gases which create very high pressures. If this pressure is confined in a gun barrel, it will exert a great force on a projectile contained in the tube, forcing the projectile out of the gun at high velocity. B-7 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Characteristics of Explosives (continued) The difference between low and high explosives is primarily in the rate at which the explosive burns. A low explosive has a relatively slow burning rate, and thus generates pressure within a confined space more slowly than does a high explosive which reacts almost instantaneously.

A high explosive is desirable for inflicting a maximum amount of damage on the enemy but if used as a propelling charge would probably destroy the gun in which it was used. The reason for this is shown in the graph below which indicates the pressure generated within a gun barrel by both types of explosive as the projectile is fired.

The high explosive would create an initial pressure which would exceed that which the gun can withstand. Both high and low explosives require the application of some form of energy to initiate their explosive reaction. This initiation is supplied by heat for low explosives and by shock (detonation) for high explosives. This initiating energy is supplied by a small charge of “initiating explosive,” a very sensitive high explosive which produces both a flame and shock when set off by being struck sharply. The primer contains a small charge of initiating explosive which, when activated by the firing mechanism of the gun, sets off the propelling charge and fires the gun. The projectile is the “pay-off”-the missile which is fired at the target. The fuze is fastened to the projectile and sets off the high explosive projectile charge when the projectile strikes or approaches the target, depending on the type of fuze used.

Ammunition may be of the fixed, semi-fixed or bag type. Fixed ammunition has all of its components assembled in one unit with the primer and propelling charge contained in a cartridge case which is attached to the projectile. This type of round is illustrated above and is used for all automatic guns, from 20-mm through 3-inch.

It is necessary that automatic guns use fixed ammunition in order that they may be loaded rapidly by means of automatic equipment. After each round is fired the empty cartridge case is automatically ejected from the gun. B-9 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Ammunition and Projectiles (continued) In semi-fixed ammunition the primer and propelling charge are contained in one unit and the projectile and fuse make a separate unit. The third type of ammunition, which is used in some 8-inch guns and all guns larger than 8 inches, is bag ammunition. In this case the primer is separate from the propelling charge so that the round is loaded as three separate units. The primer is inserted into the firing mechanism of the gun rather than being built into the case of the propelling charge. The propelling charge of bag ammunition is contained in raw silk bags which burn completely during firing and leave no residue. The number of bags of propelling charge used to fire a projectile depends on the particular gun used and range desired. B-10 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Ammunition and Projectiles (continued) The projectiles used in a given gun vary considerably depending on the purpose for which they are used. The common antiaircraft projectile is used against air targets, and uses either a time fuse (which explodes the charge a pre-set length of time after firing) or a proximity fuse (which functions when the projectile comes within a certain distance of the target).

The common projectile uses a windshield to reduce air resistance during flight and is used against surface targets. The illuminating projectile uses a time fuse and contains an illuminant which gives off intense light when the projectile bursts, illuminating a large area. The armor piercing projectile has a hardened steel cap to penetrate armor by impact before exploding.

The target projectile has no explosive or fuse and is used only for target practice. Tracers, which burn during flight so that the gunner can observe the flight of the projectile, are provided in the base of many projectiles. B-11 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS The Meaning of Interior Ballistics The term “ballistics” was derived from “ballista, ” which was the name applied to an ancient weapon used for hurling large stones or other missiles against fortifications.

Today ballistics means the study of the motion of a projectile from the time the propelling charge is ignited until the projectile hits the target. “Interior ballistics” is the study of what happens while the projectile travels through the bore of the gun-from the instant of firing until it leaves the muzzle of the gun.

“Exterior ballistics” refers to the action of the projectile during its flight from gun muzzle to target and to the factors affecting this travel. As a Fire Control Technician you will be mainly concerned with the problems involved in the study of exterior ballistics. At the instant a projectile leaves the muzzle of a gun it possesses two properties: initial direction and initial velocity. The initial direction is controlled by the gun’s elevating and traversing mechanisms; the initial velocity is determined by the interior ballistics of the gun.

On the following sheets you will learn about the factors which affect a projectile’s initial velocity; during your study of exterior ballistics a little later you will learn how initial velocity affects projectile range. Interior ballistics as it affects a projectile’s velocity includes the study of (1) combustion of the propelling charge, (2) gas pressures developed within the gun, (3) the speed of the projectile at various points within the gun bore, and (4) erosion (wearing down) of the gun bore.

B-12 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Factors Affecting Projectile Initial Velocity One of the most important factors of interior ballistics affecting a projectile’s I.V. (initial velocity) is the rate at which the propelling charge burns. You have already learned the difference between low and high explosives, and why low explosives are used for propelling charges.

Now let’s compare different types of low explosive propelling charges and see how the rate of burning affects projectile I.V. All Navy guns use propelling charges consisting of cylindrical grains, perforated from end to end with one or more holes. This type of charge results in the least muzzle loss (explosive energy wasted after the projectile leaves the muzzle) and highest muzzle (or initial) velocity for a given charge.

A comparison is made below of the effects of different propelling charges (consisting of various powder grains) upon the velocity of the projectile in the gun bore. The larger, solid powder grains burn slowest, resulting in greatest muzzle loss and subsequent lowest I.V. Thus you see that greatest muzzle velocity (I.V.) is obtained by using small perforated grains which have a higher rate of burning. The powder grains of propelling charges designed for use in various guns are not all alike and cannot be used interchangeably.

For example, the grains used in 16-inch gun propelling charges are not suitable for use in 20-mm gun ammunition. B-13 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Factors Affecting Projectile Initial Velocity (continued) Two other factors which affect projectile I.V. in guns using bag ammunition are density and manner of loading.

Density of loading is a measure of the amount of propelling charge used to fire a round. The higher the density of loading, the more propellant used; in general the muzzle velocity increases with increased density of loading. Manner of loading refers, as the term implies, to the manner in which the propelling charge is placed in the gun breech, and also to the force used to position (ram) the projectile in the gun prior to loading the propelling charge.

If the manner of loading is not kept the same, it will result in variations in muzzle velocity with resultant loss of accuracy. These factors do not affect the I.V. of projectiles fired from guns using fixed or semi-fixed ammunition; the propelling charges for these guns are fixed and hence there is no variation in density or manner of loading.

The temperature of the propelling charge has a very definite effect on projectile I.V. A typical 5-inch gun may have a normal I.V. of 2500 fps (feet per second) at a powder temperature of 90 degrees Fahrenheit. A temperature drop of 60 degrees from normal may decrease the I.V. B-14 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS The Causes and Effects of Erosion The wearing away of the gun bore during firing is called erosion. Your first guess would probably be that erosion is caused by the friction produced by the rubbing of the rotating band against the bore as the projectile travels through the gun tube, but surprisingly this is not the case. Erosion of the gun bore occurs mainly at the origin of rifling-the point in the gun bore near the breech where rifling begins. In guns using bag or semi-fixed ammunition, the projectile may be rammed further into the gun which has the effect of reducing the density of loading, and hence the muzzle velocity is decreased. B-15 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS The Causes and Effects of Erosion (continued) You have seen that erosion of the gun bore is due primarily to the high temperature and velocity of the expanding gases during firing, and the alternate heating and cooling of the gun barrel. Even a slight amount of erosion reduces the muzzle velocity, range and accuracy of a gun. The gun eventually becomes unserviceable when erosion reduces its effectiveness to a point where the projectiles fired no longer hit the target. Before a gun becomes inaccurate due to erosion, the barrel must be replaced or relined (in guns equipped with removable barrel liners).

The life of a big gun is less in terms of rounds fired than that of a machine gun. A record is kept of the number of rounds fired by each gun so that proper information on bore erosion can be supplied for fire control purposes, and to enable the gunnery officer to know when the barrel needs replacing.

B-16 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS The Use of Arbitrary Ballistics When the target has been located, its range and bearing determined, interior and exterior ballistics corrections made, and all other details of the fire control problem have been worked out, the guns are fired.

If all calculations and corrections have been properly made, a hit should be scored. Occasionally, however, it may be noted that the projectiles from one particular gun consistently fall some yards short or beyond the target. Despite all of the measurements or adjustments made, no cause can be determined for the consistent error of the gun.

In such a case, a correction is applied to that gun’s settings to compensate for the consistent error, and this correction is called an “arbitrary ballistic.” The need for and the amount of arbitrary ballistic correction can be determined only by observing the fall of a great many rounds. The fact that one or two rounds fall short or beyond is not justification for application of an arbitrary ballistic. A careful study of all the factors of the fire control problem must be made before it is decided to use an arbitrary ballistic.

B-17 GUNS AND INTERIOR BALLISTICS Interior and Exterior Ballistics On the preceding sheets you learned about guns and their construction, gun mounts, the types and characteristics of explosives. You also learned about various types of ammunition and projectiles. Finally you studied the meaning of interior ballistics and learned about the factors which affect a projectile during its travel through the gun bore.

Now you should have a pretty good idea of what is required to start a projectile on its trip to the target. You have the gun properly mounted and loaded with a complete round of ammunition. The propelling charge is ignited, the projectile travels through the barrel under the influence of the interior ballistics factors and emerges from the gun muzzle traveling at a fixed speed and in a certain direction. At the instant the projectile leaves the gun its initial velocity and direction are fixed and the influence of the interior ballistics of the weapon is ended. The course which the projectile follows after leaving the gun muzzle is determined by exterior ballistics. Thus interior and exterior ballistics are related by projectile initial speed and direction. In the next section you will study exterior ballistics-an analysis of the factors which affect a projectile during its flight from gun muzzle to target.

Who owns Beretta?

Watch the video: https://youtu.be/pZl6Wa4aRuA  Rare does a company stay true to its original mission and survives five centuries to remain the leading legacy of a market. This begins the story of Italian firearm manufacturer Beretta that was founded in the 16th century and carries the family name from its founder and master gun barrel maker Bartolomeo Beretta.

They are the oldest active firearm manufacturer in the world and have supplied firearms to every major European war since 1650. Originally producing rifle barrels back in 1526 from its birthplace in an Italian village called Gardone and in the 1850s transitioned to manufacturing full firearms. The company remains owned by the family even today as Beretta Holding.

This parent entity also owns well known brands like Benelli, Franchi, Sako, Stoeger, Uberti and the Burris Optics Company. As a family business, it is fascinating that family members kept the tradition of leading the business, although the company was passed from father to son, it was Ugo Gussalli Beretta who married into the family and took up the name. Image Source: https://www.beretta.com/en/world-of-beretta/today/ In fact, Franco Gussalli Beretta leads the Fabbrica d’Armi Pietro Beretta (Pietro Beretta Gun Factory) entity today, and Pietro Gussalli Beretta is the current President and CEO of the parent entity Beretta Holding S.p.A. Image Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beretta_Model_1915 It was the Beretta Model 1918 issued in 1918 that was one of the very first submachine guns in the world. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beretta_M1918 Having such a long history, it was not always easy sailing for the company. Beretta was seized by the Nazis in WWII to produce arms for their purpose, and after the war, they returned to building firearms for police, military and the civilian market. Image Source: https://www.claytonfirearms.com.au/products/handguns/beretta/beretta-92-fs-inox-clayton Image Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beretta The design of the Beretta logo has become a globally recognised icon logo for the brand. The current version is a circle with three arrows arranged in a trident like formation within it. The three arrows represent the three warning shots of a battleship.

The arrow on the left represents the first warning shot, fired at the ship’s stern, the arrow on the right represents the second warning shot that would be fired at the ship’s bow, and the central arrow is the last round fired aimed at the ship when it would not yield from the earlier warning shots.

Although this has not been verified, the three small circles are believed to represent the ‘Pax Cultura’ that is the Banner of Peace. Some logos carry the ‘P.Beretta’ inscription that represents P for Pietro Beretta, who was the father of the industrialized Beretta company. Image Source: https://1000logos.net/beretta-logo/ An earlier version of the logo carried the inscription ‘ Dare in Brocca ‘ that means ‘ Hit the Target ‘. Image Source: https://www.beretta.com/en/490-beretta-anniversary-chapter-four/ Beretta’s firearm product line is vast and includes revolvers, semi-automatic handguns, shotguns, rifles, submachine guns, machine pistols, and even a launcher. Today clothing and other related apparel and merchandise have been included.

What is the oldest gun brand?

Beretta – Wikipedia Italian firearms manufacturer This article is about the firearms company. For the surname, see, For the automobile, see, For other uses, see, Fabbrica d’Armi Pietro Beretta S.p.A. Type ()IndustryFounded1526 ; 497 years ago ( 1526 ) FounderHeadquarters, Italy Products and accessoriesWebsite Fabbrica d’Armi Pietro Beretta ( Italian pronunciation: ; “Pietro Beretta Weapon Factory”) is a Italian operating in several countries.

Its firearms are used worldwide for a variety of civilian, law enforcement, and military purposes. Sporting arms account for three-quarters of sales; Beretta is also known for marketing shooting clothes and accessories. Founded in the 16th century, Beretta is the, In 1526 its inaugural product was barrels; by all accounts Beretta-made barrels equipped the Venetian fleet at the in 1571.

Beretta has supplied weapons for every major European war since 1650.

How far can a bullet travel?

Examples of projectile travel distances: A centerfire bullet can travel several miles. Small shot can travel 200-350 yards. Larger shot can travel over 600 yards.

Who created caliber?

Caliber is an online multiplayer third-person shooter. The gameplay is based on tactical cooperation between players. Developer and publisher: 1C Game Studios.

Is the UK caliber or calibre?

Language Caliber and calibre are both English terms. Usage Caliber is predominantly used in 🇺🇸 American (US) English ( en-US ) while calibre is predominantly used in 🇬🇧 British English (used in UK/AU/NZ) ( en-GB ). In terms of actual appearance and usage, here’s a breakdown by country, with usage level out of 100 (if available) 👇:

Term US UK India Philippines Canada Australia Liberia Ireland New Zealand Jamaica Trinidad & Tobago Guyana
caliber 87 31 61 62 63 28 0 41 39 72 64 100
calibre 13 69 39 38 37 72 0 59 61 28 36 0

ul> In the United States, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (87 to 13). In the United Kingdom, there is a 69 to 31 preference for ” calibre ” over “caliber”. In India, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (61 to 39). In the Philippines, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (62 to 38). In Canada, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (63 to 37). In Australia, there is a 72 to 28 preference for ” calibre ” over “caliber”. In Liberia, there is not enough data to determine a preference between “caliber” and “calibre”. In Ireland, there is a 59 to 41 preference for ” calibre ” over “caliber”. In New Zealand, there is a 61 to 39 preference for ” calibre ” over “caliber”. In Jamaica, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (72 to 28). In Trinidad & Tobago, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (64 to 36). In Guyana, there is a preference for ” caliber ” over “calibre” (100 to 0).

Examples Below, we provide some examples of when to use caliber or calibre with sample sentences. Trends 📈 See Trends Looking for a tool that handles this for you wherever you write? Get Sapling

When was the 40 caliber invented?

History –

This section needs additional citations for, Please help by in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: – · · · · ( August 2021 ) ( )

In the aftermath of the, in which two FBI special agents were killed and five wounded, the FBI started the process of testing and ammunition in preparation to replace its standard-issue with a, The semi-automatic pistol offered two advantages over the revolver: increased ammunition capacity and increased ease of reloading during a gunfight.

The FBI was satisfied with the performance of its +P 158 gr (10.2 g) lead semi-wadcutter hollowpoint (LSWCHP) cartridge (“FBI load”) based on decades of dependable performance. Ammunition for the new semi-automatic pistol had to deliver terminal performance equal or superior to the,38 Special FBI load.

The FBI developed a series of practically oriented tests involving eight test events that they believed reasonably represented the kinds of situations that FBI agents commonly encountered in shooting incidents. Left to right:,,40 S&W,, During tests of the 9×19 mm and,45 ACP ammunition, the Unit Chief of the FBI Firearms Training Unit, John Hall, decided to include tests of the cartridge, supplying his own 10 mm semi-automatic, and personally hand-loaded ammunition.

  1. The FBI’s tests revealed that a 170–180 gr (11.0–11.7 g) JHP 10 mm bullet, propelled between 900–1,000 ft/s (270–300 m/s), achieved desired terminal performance without the heavy recoil associated with conventional 10 mm ammunition (1,300–1,400 ft/s (400–430 m/s)).
  2. The FBI contacted Smith & Wesson and requested it to design a handgun to FBI specifications, based on the existing large-frame,45 ACP handgun, that would reliably function with the FBI’s reduced-velocity 10 mm ammunition.

During this collaboration with the FBI, S&W realized that downsizing the 10 mm full power to meet the FBI’s medium velocity specification meant less powder and more airspace in the case. They found that by removing the airspace they could shorten the 10 mm case enough to fit within their medium-frame 9 mm handguns and load it with a 180 gr (11.7 g) JHP bullet to produce ballistic performance identical to the FBI’s reduced-velocity 10 mm cartridge.

S&W then teamed with Winchester to produce a new cartridge, the,40 S&W. It uses a small whereas the 10 mm cartridge uses a large pistol primer. The,40 S&W cartridge debuted January 17, 1990, along with the new pistol, although it was several months before the pistols were available for purchase. Austrian manufacturer were commercially available ahead of Smith & Wesson in 1990, with pistols chambered in,40 S&W (the and ) which were announced a week before the 4006.

Glock’s rapid introduction was aided by its engineering of a pistol chambered in 10 mm Auto, the, only a short time earlier. Since the,40 S&W uses the same bore diameter and case head as the 10 mm Auto, it was merely a matter of adapting the 10 mm design to the shorter frames.

The new guns and ammunition were an immediate success, and pistols in the new caliber were adopted by several law enforcement agencies around the nation, including the FBI, which adopted the Glock pistol in,40 S&W in May 1997. The popularity of the,40 S&W accelerated with the passage of the now-expired of 1994 which prohibited sales of pistol or rifle magazines that could hold more than ten cartridges, regardless of caliber.

, and a number of local governments, also banned or regulated so-called “high capacity” magazines. As a result, many new firearm buyers limited to purchasing pistols with a maximum magazine capacity of 10 rounds chose pistols in the,40 S&W chambering instead of smaller-diameter cartridges such as the 9×19 mm (9 mm Luger or 9 mm Parabellum).

  1. The,40 S&W case length and overall cartridge length are shortened, but other dimensions except for case web and wall thickness remain identical to the 10 mm Auto.
  2. Both cartridges on the mouth of the case.
  3. Thus in a semi-auto, they are not interchangeable.
  4. Fired from a 10 mm semi-auto, the,40 Smith & Wesson cartridge will headspace on the extractor and the bullet will jump a 0.142 inches (3.6 mm) freebore just like a,38 Special fired from a,357 Magnum revolver.

If the cartridge is not held by the extractor, the chances for a ruptured primer are great. Smith & Wesson does make a double-action revolver (the ) that can fire either cartridge via use of, A single-action revolver in the,38–40 chambering can also fire,40 or 10 mm rounds provided it is equipped with a correctly sized cylinder.

Why was the,22 caliber invented?

Art Lander’s Outdoors: The,22 long rifle, the leader in sales worldwide and first firearm experience for many A leader in sales both nationally and worldwide, the,22 Long Rifle is arguably the most popular cartridge of all time. For many rural Kentuckians or city folks who grew up in a family of hunters and shooters, their first experience with firearms was likely with this small rimfire cartridge.

The,22 Long Rifle is arguably the most popular cartridge of all time (Photo courtesy of Art Lander) Rifles, semi-automatic pistols and revolvers are chambered for the inexpensive, accurate, easy shooting,22 Long Rifle. Its low recoil and relatively low noise level make the cartridge the top choice for introductory firearms courses at schools, camps and 4H, where gun safety and marksmanship are stressed.

The,22 Long Rifle is an ideal cartridge for recreational “plinking,” shooting metal cans or small plastic bottles filled with water. It adds challenge to small-game hunting, demanding a high level of marksmanship to bag squirrels and rabbits, and excels in pest control, dispatching a nuisance raccoon that invades the chicken coop, or the groundhog dining in the family garden.

  • The inherent accuracy of the,22 Long Rifle and the wide availability of “match grade” ammunition and high-quality target rifles, fuels small-bore competition at the high school college, international, and Olympic levels.
  • Origin of the,22 Long Rifle,22 caliber rimfire cartridge (Photo courtesy of CCI Ammunition) The first,22 caliber rimfire cartridge was the,22 BB Cap (Bulleted Breech Cap), invented by Louis-Nicolas Flobert in 1845.

The low-velocity cartridge was designed for indoor target shooting. The case did not contain any powder, with the only propellant being a percussion cap. Next came the,22 Short, developed in 1857, followed by the,22 Long in 1871, which was initially loaded with black powder.

  1. Stevens Arms, now a division of Savage Arms, founded by Joshua Stevens in 1864 in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, introduced the,22 Long Rifle cartridge in 1887.
  2. Cartridge Construction and Performance The,22 Long Rifle uses a heeled bullet, which means the bullet is the same diameter as the case and has a narrower “heel” base that fits in the case.

,22 Long Rifle cartridge in 1887 (Photo courtesy of Federal Ammunition) Its case length is,613 inches, with a rim diameter of,278 inches, and when loaded, the cartridge has an overall length of one inch. Ammunition available today includes Match grade, Standard velocity, High velocity and Hyer-velocity, with bullet weights of 30 to 60 grains, and muzzle velocities ranging from below 1,000 feet per second (subsonic) to 1,640 feet per second.

Rimfire bullets are generally either plain lead with a wax coating, for standard velocity loads, or plated with copper or gilding metal, for high velocity or hyper-velocity loads. The thin copper layer on plated bullet functions as a lubricant reducing friction between the bullet and the barrel, thus reducing barrel wear.

Plating also prevents oxidation of the lead bullet. Zero-in Rifles Chambered in the,22 Long Rifle When zeroed in at 100 yards, the arc-trajectory of the high velocity,22 Long Rifle with a 40-grain bullet has a 2.7-inch rise at 50 yards and a 10.8-inch drop at 150 yards.

  • For that reason scoped rifles chambered for the,22 Long Rifle should be zeroed in at about 75 yards, to avoid shooting high at small targets at intermediate ranges.
  • Ricochets are common with the,22 LR so a safe background is recommended when target practicing.
  • The combination of solid, unjacketed bullets and relatively low velocities, allows the projectile to deflect, not penetrate or disintegrate, when hitting hard objects, or the surface of the water, at a glancing angle.

,22 Long Rifle Conversion Kits for Handguns A,22 Long Rifle conversion kit (Photo courtesy of Advantage Arms, Inc.),22 Long Rifle conversion kits are available for some semi-automatic centerfire handguns. The kits enable practice at a much-reduced cost and are ideal for introducing a new shooter to handguns.

A popular conversion kit, in high demand, is the Advantage Arms, Inc. kit for Glock handguns, which includes a slide, with,22 barrel and spring, 10-round magazine, loader and range bag. The conversion kit makes it possible to shoot,22 Long Rifle ammunition through a 9mm,,40 S&W, or other caliber Glock handguns.

The kits costs about $300, is available for Glock Generation 3, 4 and 5 handguns, models 17 through 39.

For more information, visit Ammunition Availability Ammunition is packaged in boxes of 50 or 100, a “brick” carton containing either 10 boxes of 50 rounds or loose cartridges totaling 500 rounds, buckets of 1,400 cartridges, or a “case” containing 10 bricks totaling 5,000 rounds.

The National Shooting Sports Foundation estimates that the annual production of the,22 Long Rifle is a large percentage of the more than 10 billion cartridges produced in the U.S. annually. The,22 Long Rifle is a cartridge that was developed more than 130 years ago yet its popularity with hunters, target shooting competitors, and recreational “plinkers” has withstood the test of time.

  • This all-purpose, fun little rimfire will always loom large in our hunting and shooting memories.
  • Art Lander Jr.
  • Is outdoors editor for KyForward.
  • He is a native Kentuckian, a graduate of Western Kentucky University and a life-long hunter, angler, gardener and nature enthusiast.

He has worked as a newspaper columnist, magazine journalist and author and is a former staff writer for Kentucky Afield Magazine, editor of the annual Kentucky Hunting & Trapping Guide and Kentucky Spring Hunting Guide, and co-writer of the Kentucky Afield Outdoors newspaper column.