What Does Apb Stand For?

What Does Apb Stand For

What is an APB in the UK?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

All-points bulletin

Police used all-points bulletins to send messages via a computer.
Other names APB, BOLO
Uses Policing, politics
Types Computer, radio, paper

An all-points bulletin ( APB ) is an electronic information broadcast sent from one sender to a group of recipients, to rapidly communicate an important message. The technology used to send this broadcast has varied throughout time, and includes teletype, radio, computerized bulletin board systems (CBBS), and the Internet.

What is an example of APB?

Examples of APB in Texting and Social Posts – APB is an abbreviation commonly used in texting and online communication, standing for “All Points Bulletin.” This term originates from law enforcement agencies, specifically in the U.S. and Canada, where it is used to alert personnel or other agencies about a matter requiring urgent attention, usually involving a wanted criminal or a missing person.

In the context of social media and online conversations, APB is often employed to convey an important message or announcement to a group or community. For example, someone might post, “APB: There’s a lost dog in the area, please keep an eye out and contact me if you see it.” The use of APB in texting and social posts emphasizes the urgency and significance of the message, drawing attention from the recipients.

While the abbreviation APB has its roots in the police and criminal contexts, it has been colloquially adopted in various other scenarios. Outside of its common meaning, APB can also stand for “A Path Beyond,” referring to a computer game, or “Apoptygma Berzerk,” which is a Norwegian music group.

  • In the army context, APB may be used to symbolize “Annual Performance Bonus,” referring to a financial reward granted to personnel for their performance over a year.
  • It is essential to consider the context in which APB is used to deduce the accurate meaning of the abbreviation.
  • The majority of social posts and texts will leverage the primary definition: “All Points Bulletin.” This meaning is applicable across various situations, from alerting friends and family about a lost item to warning community members about potential threats in the area.

In summary, APB is a versatile abbreviation that originated from law enforcement but has taken on a broader meaning in texting and social media platforms. The common use of APB is to emphasize the urgency or importance of a message, but it can also refer to other entities, such as games, music groups, or bonuses in the army, depending on the context.

What B and E means?

B and E in American English noun. Law. the crime of breaking and entering : two of the elements of the crime of burglary.

What does Bolo mean in America?

BOLO is an acronym that means ‘ be on the lookout.’ This is an instruction to law enforcement agents, or the general public, to watch out for a suspect criminal or criminal activity. For instance, a police precinct may receive a tip that a gang is planning on robbing a See full answer below.

Where is APB used?

Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB) – APB is designed for low bandwidth control accesses, for example register interfaces on system peripherals. This bus has an address and data phase similar to AHB, but a much reduced, low complexity signal list (for example no bursts). Furthermore, it is an interface designed for a low frequency system with a low bit width (32 bits).

How many slaves can be connected in APB?

Along with CoreAHB2APB, the CoreAPB component provides an AMBA APB fabric that supports up to 16 APB slaves.

How does APB work?

APB transactions: – transactions are divided into two phases. The setup phase is always the first clock cycle of any transfer. The bus master drives an address on the bus and drives the psel for the peripheral it wants to access. If the master is making a write it will also drive pwrite and place write data onto the bus.

  • The access phase takes place following the setup phase.
  • It can be completed in one clock cycle but it can also be extended by the slave (for example if it needs to access slower memory).
  • In the access phase the signal ‘penable’ will be driven until the transaction completes.
  • The slave-driven ‘pready’ can be driven low until the slave is ready.

Once penable and pready are driven at the same time, the access phase completes.

Why is APB important?

Key Takeaways –

The Accounting Principles Board (APB) was a precursor to the Financial Accounting Standards Board, which establishes generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).All U.S. public corporations are required to follow the GAAP standards in order to make financial reports consistent and transparent.The APB was in existence from 1959 to 1973.

The purpose of the APB was to issue guidelines and rules on accounting principles. Some of the opinions released by the APB still stand as part of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), but most have been either amended or entirely superseded by FASB statements.

What does A&E mean in texting?

A & E is an abbreviation for ‘accident and emergency’.

What is the meaning of A&E in London?

A&E (accident and emergency) is for serious injuries and life-threatening emergencies only. It is also known as the emergency department or casualty. Life-threatening emergencies are different for adults and children.

What does BNE stand for?

What does BNE stand for?

Rank Abbr. Meaning
BNE Breaking and Entering
BNE Business Networking Event
BNE Board of National Estimates
BNE Bayesian Nash Equilibrium (game theory)

What is a Bolo in gym?

The sport of boxing has its own, unique language. It’s full of terminology that is so strong that much of it has become a part of every day lingo. Browse through our glossary of terms to see how many words and phrases you know and use. Accidental Butt: It is ruled an accidental butt when two fighter’s heads collide and the referee determines that neither fighter intentionally head-butted the other.

  • Typically both fighters are warned to be careful, but no fighter is penalized.
  • Alphabet Groups: This is a negative term used to describe the numerous sanctioning bodies of boxing; the WBC, WBA, WBO, etc.
  • Amateur Boxing: Competitive boxing matches where neither participant is paid and most fighters are beginning to learn their craft.

Amateur Events Near You Apron:   The section of a boxing ring canvas, on the floor, that extends outside of the ring ropes. Backpedal:   To retreat or move backwards, away from an opponent, while still facing him, all in an attempt to avoid an attack.

Be First: When your coach tells you to “be first”, he or she is wanting you to throw your punches before your opponent. In other terms, he/she wants you to be aggressive. Bell:  A type of gong used to signal the start and end of each round. Below the Belt: A punch that strays low, below the waistband of a boxer’s trunks.

Bleeder: A boxer who gets cut easily. Blow-by-Blow: A detailed description used by broadcasters to describe the action as it unfolds in the ring. Bob and Weave: Side to side and rolling movements that are used as defense to avoid punches. Heavyweight Joe Frazier is a classic example of someone who used the “bob and weave” defense to perfection.

  • Body Work: An offensive method of attack that is targeted towards an opponent’s midsection with the intent of wearing him down or knocking the wind out of him/her.
  • Bolo Punch: Typically used to distract an opponent, it is a punch that is thrown in a circular motion and is a hook combined with an uppercut.

“Bolo” means machete in the Filipino language. Macario Flores was the first fighter to have reportedly use the punch, but it became more popular and is more commonly associated with Kid Gavilan and Sugar Ray Leonard, Bout: A word used to describe a boxing match.

Brawler: This is a type of fighter who likes to exchange punches and relies on being aggressive and fighting on the inside. Break: This is a command used by a boxing referee to stop the action and separate the fighters. Canvas: Although these days the ring flooring can also be vinyl, boxing rings were traditionally made from canvas and were called that.

This is now a general term used to reference the floor of the boxing ring. Shop Boxing Rings Card: This is the line-up of bouts or fights that are scheduled at any given boxing event. Catch-Weight: A term used to describe a bout where neither fighter adheres to a traditional weight division, but instead have agreed to a predetermined weight at which they will compete.

  1. Caught Cold: This is a term used to describe a boxer who gets hurt in the opening rounds or stopped early in the fight because he or she was not mentally or physically prepared or warmed-up.
  2. Challenger: A boxer who is scheduled to face a champion or the favored fighter.
  3. Champion: The fighter who holds the title.

Check Hook: A counterpunch designed to “catch” an aggressive fighter as he is moving forward on the attack. This punch is thrown like a traditional hook, but involves simultaneously stepping back and timing the opponent as he comes forward.  Chief Second: This is the coach or trainer who is in charge of the corner.

  • Shop All Corner Supplies Clinch: A term used to describe when two fighters grab onto or hold each other to prevent an exchange or to slow the action.
  • One fighter may also use this tactic when he is hurt, to prevent absorbing additional punishment.
  • Combination: This is any series of punches thrown in succession, one right after the other, with no break in between.

Contender: This is a qualified opponent who has worked his way up the ranks in order to challenge for the world title. Corkscrew Punch: This is a punch thrown in an overhand, arching motion that twists on impact and is intended to cause a cut. Cornerman: A coach, cutman or person responsible for tending to a fighter between rounds.

Shop All Corner Supplies Counterpunch: This is any punch that is thrown in return or comes back as a response to an offensive move. Cover-Up: This is a defensive move employed by a fighter to avoid getting hit. He or she simply hides beneath and behind their gloves to avoid direct contact from an offensive attack.

Cross: A power punch thrown with the rear hand and travels across the fighter’s body. Cruiserweight: Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing 200lbs or less can compete in and is classified as a cruiserweight.

  1. Cutman: The individual in the corner who is responsible for controlling any cuts, abrasions, or swelling that could negatively impact a fighter’s ability to perform or continue to fight.
  2. Shop All Corner Supplies Cutting-off-the-Ring:   This is a technique that involves limiting an opponent’s movement by stepping side to side, not allowing him to move freely around the ring.

Decision: This is the verdict rendered by the ringside judges who determine the winner of the bout. This typically occurs at the conclusion of the contest, but can also take place if a foul, accidental butt or type of injury takes place and the scorecards have to be referenced.

Disqualification: This occurs when one boxer commits too many fouls or flagrant rule violations and is subsequentl y deemed unfit to continue competing. He automatically loses the bout. Dive: This is when one fighter purposely goes down for the count or pretends to be knocked out. Down and Out: A common boxing phrase used for when one boxer is knocked down and fails to get up before the referee reaches the mandatory count of ten.

Draw: When all judges scores are tallied and the rounds are all scored close, exactly the same, or balance each other out, the bout is determined” even “, with no winner declared. Duck: Dropping your weight down and under a punch to avoid being hit by it.

  1. Eight Count: When one fighter is knocked down or in trouble of being stopped, a referee can administer a count of eight to give the fighter time to recover or so that he can better assess the situation.
  2. Enswell : A tool used by the cut-man in a boxer’s corner to reduce swelling and stop bleeding.
  3. It is typically made of stainless steel that is cooled by placing on ice.

It is then applied with slight pressure to the injured area to constrict the capillaries and slow blood flow, bruising or swelling. Shop All Enswells Faded: Usually refers to a fighter who runs out of gas in the later rounds or who, overall in terms of his boxing career, is no longer performing at his best.

  • Feint: Faking or feinting a punch is used to make an opponent unnecessarily react, or to gauge his response so that it throws him off his game or makes him commit to a false move.
  • Fisticuffs : A term used in the early 1600’s, combining the word fist and cuff, or “blow.” It was commonly used in reference to two men engaging in hand-to-hand combat.

Flash Knockdown: This typically describes a quick knockdown or brief trip to the canvas where the fighter that goes down was only temporarily caught off-guard or rocked, but suffered no significant damage. Foul:   To break one of boxing’s rules, which can ultimately lead to point deductions if they are repeated.

  • Fringe Contender: This usually refers to a lesser-known or low-ranking fighter who is about to break into the higher rankings, but doesn’t typically pose much of a threat.
  • Gate: This is the amount of money generated on-site from the sale of tickets.
  • Gatekeeper: Term used to describe a fighter who is not a threat to be champion, but opponents can establish themselves as a legitimate contender by beating him.

Get Off: This refers to a fighter’s ability to “let his hands go” or throw uninhibited to mount an effective offensive attack. Glass Jaw: A negative term used to describe a fighter who can’t take a punch, who gets knocked out easily or has a questionable chin.

  1. Go the Distance: To fight to the final bell or the duration of an entire fight.
  2. Go to the Body: An offensive strategy focused on attacking the mid-section or abdominal region, as opposed to concentrating on the head as a fighter’s target.
  3. Go to the Cards: An occurrence where neither fighter is knocked out or stopped.

The decision, as to who won the fight, is made by assigned judges who have scored each round as the bout has progressed. Governing Body: The organization who dictates the rules of each bout and sanctions or approves fights. Groin Protector: A type of protective gear that is typically made of fabric and foam and fits around a fighter ‘s waist to protect his hips, upper abdomen and groin area to guard against punches that accidentally land “below the belt.” Shop Groin Protectors Hand Wraps: In order to protect their fists in training and sparring, fighters wrap their hands in tape, gauze or cotton bandages that have specifically been designed for boxing.

  1. Shop Hand Wraps Haymaker: A desperation punch thrown with full force and with the intent to knock an opponent out.
  2. Head Butt: When two fighter’s heads collide or come together.
  3. This occasionally happens by accident or is sometimes employed as a blatant foul.
  4. Head Hunting:   A term used to describe a boxer who focuses most of his attention on striking his opponent in the face and head, thereby, ignoring body punching.
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Heavyweight: Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing over 200lbs is classified as heavyweight. Hook: This punch is thrown with the lead or front hand and is delivered in a semi-circular pattern.

The hook is executed by leading with your front hand, bringing your elbow up and rotating the front side of your body (in a similar motion as slamming a door). It is meant to reach beyond your opponent’s guard and make contact with the side of his head or chin. Infighting: This is also called “inside fighting” or exchanging punches at close-range.

Improve Close-Range Punching Jab: The jab is a punch that is thrown with your front hand and delivered straight at your opponent. It should be the centerpiece of any boxing offense. Journeyman: This is a term that means a fighter who is always “in the game,” but not typically in title contention.

A journeyman is used by up-and-coming fighters to test their skills and, in many cases, gain a recognizable win over a “name” on their record. Journeymen are constantly on their own journey (never arriving) and part of a future champion’s journey to notoriety. Kidney Punch: This is an illegal blow thrown at an opponent’s lower back, usually while in a clinch or as a counterpunch.

Knockdown:  When an opponent is struck and falls to the ring floor or when his glove or knee touches the canvas after being hit. Knockout/KO:   If a fighter is rendered unconscious, cannot stand after being knocked-down, or is unable to continue for any reason under their physical control by the count of ten, he or she would be considered knocked-out and loses the contest.

  • Lead Right: A lead right is delivered in place of a lead jab, but is harder to execute because it has to travel across the distance of a fighters body to land, so it has to be thrown quickly and catch an opponent off-guard.
  • Light Flyweight: Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing 108lbs or less can compete in and is classified as a light flyweight.

Light Heavyweight: Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing 175lbs or less can compete in and is classified as a light heavyweight. Light Middleweight: Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing 154lbs or less can compete in and is classified as a light middleweight.

  1. Light Welterweight: Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing 140lbs or less can compete in and is classified as a light welterweight.
  2. Lineal Champion: This is when a fighter wins the title from the fighter who won the title and it has been passed down through a direct line of champions.

It is, in essence, “the man who beat the man.” Low Blow: This is any punch that is thrown or strays below the waistband of a boxer’s trunks. It can also be an imaginary line at the base of the midsection where the referee deemed illegal. Main Event: The most recognizable or main fight on a card.

  • Mauler: Most often this is used to describe a fighter who likes to fight wildly on the inside and use roughhouse tactics to nullify their opponent’s effectiveness.
  • Majority Decision: (awarded by the majority of the judges) When two of the three judges score it for one fighter, while the third judge scores it a draw.

Majority Draw: When two of the three judges score the fight as a draw, while the third judge scores it for one of the fighters. Middleweight: Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing 160lbs or less can compete in and is classified as a middleweight.

  • Minimum w eight: Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing 105lbs or less can compete in and is classified as a minimum weight.
  • Mouse: A bump or isolated area of swelling on a fighter’s face.
  • Mouth Guard: A piece of protective equipment that is constructed of a dense rubber material, molded to a fighter ‘s mouth to protect his teeth, g u m s and jaw from injury.

Shop Mouth Guards Neutral Corner: Each of the two fighters are assigned a red or blue corner. Two white corners of the ring are remaining and are considered “neutral territory.” Neither fighter’s cornermen are stationed there so it’s where a fighter is sent if he knocks his or her opponent down.

They remain there while a count is administered by the referee. No-Decision: When it has been pre-determined by both fighters that a particular fight will not go on their records, for a variety of reasons, or when a fight is prematurely ended due to an unintentional head butt or cut, it can be ruled a no-contest or no decision.

On the Ropes: Whether purposely, as a defensive technique, or he is forced to fight from this position by a more aggressive opponent, a fighter who lays against the ring ropes is considered “on the ropes.” Orthodox: A right-handed fighter or one who leads with a left jab and uses his back, or right hand, as his cross.

Outpoint:  This is when one boxer outscores his opponent by landing more blows each round. Outside Fighter: Boxers who prefer to fight from the outside, typically behind a long jab, from long-range are considered outside fighters. Overhand: A punch that is delivered in an arching motion, traveling downward on the opponent.

Palooka: This is an old boxing term used to describe a fighter who is uneducated, who is lacking in ability and/or who is generally clumsy. Parry: This is when you not only block an incoming punch, but actually re-direct it away from your body or the intended target.

Paw: When you don’t fully commit to a punch and throw it without any real intent to land, but more like you are testing the waters, this is referred to as “pawing.” Peek-A-Boo: This style of fighting was attributed to legendary trainer Cus D’Amato and involved placing your hands high in front of your face, providing a lot of angles to confuse your opponent and moving your upper torso rapidly from side to side.

Mike Tyson was famous for employing this type of style. Try our Cus D’Amato Slipping Bag Picking-off Punches:  A term used when punches are blocked or redirected before they land. Play Possum: This is when a fighter acts like he is hurt or tired in an attempt to lure his opponent in and carelessly leave himself open, while attempting to take advantage of the “vulnerable” fighter.

  • Plodder: A heavy-footed, slow fighter who consistently moves forward is considered “a plodder.” Point Deduction: A point is taken away from a fighter when a blatant foul or rule infraction occurs.
  • It can also happen after several warnings have been issued, such as in a case of unintentional, but repeated low blows.

Pound-for-Pound: This term is used to describe a fighter’s skill level regardless of weight category. It originated with and is commonly used to describe Sugar Ray Robinson, whose skill and overall ring generalship would translate into and transcend any weight division.

  1. Prizefighter: This is a traditional term used to describe any combatant who competes against another for “prize money” or an award.
  2. Shop Belts & Awards Promoter: Used in many forms of entertainment, but in relation to boxing, the term refers to an individual or entity that arranges boxing matches.
  3. This typically includes paying everyone involved, obtaining the necessary licensing, advertising the event, ticket sales, securing a venue to stage the matches, assuming all financial risk and nearly every facet of organizing the contest(s).

Pugilist: An outdated word that originated from the Latin word ” pugil ” which means a fist-fighter or boxer. Pull: A defensive move where a fighter leans away from or pulls back from to avoid being hit. Pull Counter:  This is a type of defensive-counterpunch combination used against a fighter who takes the lead and throws a jab first.

It requires a fighter to anticipiate when his opponent is going to throw the punch, to pull away just far enough for him to miss, but stay close enough in range to land a counter-cross in return. Pull Your Punches: When a punch is not delivered at full force, but held back. Fighters sparring each other may pull their punches to keep the intensity light.

Some fighters may do it in a competitive match to trick their opponent into a feeling of safety before they surprise them by throwing with full power. Puncher’s Chance: A term used to describe the type of fighter, who although may be outclassed, still possesses the kind of knock out power to end a fight with one punch.

  1. He could clearly not outbox his opponent, but would always have a chance to win based on his power.
  2. Punch Mitts: A pair of foam pads that a boxing trainer wears on his hands to provide moving targets for his boxer.
  3. These pads are used to mimic an opponent’s movement, to practice specific punches and combinations and develop specific boxing skills.

Shop Punch Mitts Purse: The amount of money a boxer earns or is being paid to fight. Rabbit Punch: This is any punch that is delivered to the back of another fighter’s head. It is an illegal blow, due to being highly dangerous. It is called that because of its similarity to the way that hunters used to kill rabbits.

Ring Generalship: This is the manner in which a fighter controls the action in the ring and understands his position. It is the way he is able to impose his will on his opponent and strategically outmaneuver him. Ring/Round Card Girls: Combat sports regularly feature women who carry a numbered sign or “card” in the ring during the rest period.

This informs or reminds the audience which round is coming up next. Shop Round Cards Ringside: A position in the front row or right next to the boxing ring is considered “ringside.” Roadwork:   This term applies to running, jogging or sprinting that fighters do in cardiovascular preparation for a boxing match.

  1. Roll with the Punches: The ability to move with a punch to reduce its impact or turn in that same direction so that it doesn’t land cleanly.
  2. Rope-a-Dope: When you maintain a defensive posture on the ropes in an attempt to outlast or tire your opponent.
  3. It is most recognized and was actually given that name by Muhammad Ali when he employed the technique to defeat George Foreman.

Roughhousing: When an opponent uses “questionable” offensive tactics, is highly physical and aggressive, it is considered to be “roughhouse tactics.” Rubber Match: When two fighters have fought twice, each having won one of the previous matches, this one deciding who will win best of three, it is called a rubber match.

  • Sanctioning Body: An organization that regulates and approves fights.
  • Sanctioning bodies dictate the rules and guidelines that any bout is fought under.
  • Saved by the Bell: If a fighter is knocked down and seemingly cannot get up by the time the round ends, he is considered to have been “saved by the bell.” Shop Ring Gongs Second: One of a fighter’s cornermen.

Seconds O ut : A verbal command issued by the referee that the one minute rest between rounds has ended, signaling that the fighter ‘ s trainer s, coaches and cut men must leave the corner and return ringside for the start of the next round. Shadow Boxing:  A type of training or warm-up exercise used to describe when a fighter observes his shadow or his reflection in a mirror, against an imaginary opponent, in order to review his technique.

  1. Shifting: An offensive technique where you change your lead foot, shifting your weight to gain more power.
  2. You are basically changing from orthodox to southpaw as you deliver a punch.
  3. Shoe Shine: A series of flashy punches in quick succession that look impressive but do little damage.
  4. Shopworn: This refers to a fighter who has taken too much punishment or suffered too much wear and tear on his body over the course of his career.

Shoulder Roll: This is a defensive move where a fighter leaves his front arm low and drapes it across his midsection so that when his opponent throws a punch he can use his shoulder to block or roll with it. This is so the defensive fighter is able to counter back with either hand because neither was used for blocking.

For a right-handed fighter, it also automatically shifts his weight to his back foot and sets him up for a hard counter right cross. Although Floyd Mayweather has become known for this, many great fighters like Jersey Joe Walcott were masters of this defensive technique. Slip: When you move your head to avoid getting hit.

Southpaw: Slang for a left-handed fighter or someone who is left hand dominant. Spar: This is used for training and preparation in the gym. It should be much less intense than an actual fight, incorporating greater padded gloves and headgear. Shop Sparring Gloves Sparring Partner:   This is a term used to describe another boxer that a fighter trains with and practices against, in order to prepare for a “real” bout.

  1. Spit Bucket: The bucket or container a corner uses to carry their supplies, but is primarily used between rounds for the fighter to spit excess water into so that he doesn’t swallow too much during the course of a bout.
  2. Split Decision: (split between the two fighters) When two of the three judges score the bout for one fighter and one judge scores it for the other.

Split Decision Draw: When one judge scores the bout for one fighter, the next judge scores it for the other and the third judge scores it a draw. Stablemate: When two fighters train in the same gym and fight for the same manager or promoter, they are oftentimes called stablemates.

  • Stepping Stone : A negative term that describes any fighter being used to improve another boxer’s position or standing in boxing,
  • This typically refers to an athlete who has name recognition or has had some level of success, but is no longer “a threat” to win.
  • Stick and Move: This is an offensive style of fighting that incorporates a great deal of movement, punching and moving constantly.

Stylist: A fighter who uses skill and technique more than power is considered “a stylist.” Sucker Punch: A punch thrown at an unsuspecting victim or after the bell has sounded. Super Middleweight : Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing 168lbs or less can compete in and is classified as a super middleweight.

  1. Technical Decision: When a fight is stopped early due to a cut, disqualification, or any situation when the bout is stopped and the scorecards are tallied.
  2. Technical Draw: When a bout is stopped early and the scores are even.
  3. Technical Knockout: A technical knockout, or TKO, is the ending of a fight, determined by the referee, before it has gone the predetermined distance on the grounds of one contestant’s inability to continue, the opponent being declared the winner.
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Throw in the Towel: When a fighter’s corner tosses a towel into the ring in order to stop the fight. It is usually due to their fighter taking too much punishment and is symbolic of surrendering. Toe-to-Toe: When two fighters don’t back down, stand directly in front of each other and exchange punches.

  • Trial Horse: This refers to a fighter who is used as a test for an up-and-coming fighter to gauge his ability or readiness to step-up in class.
  • A “trial horse” is usually a tough, durable fighter who will fight back, but poses no real threat to win.
  • Tying-Up :   A type of defensive technique used when a fighter clinches or locks his opponent’s arms against his body so that they cannot throw punches in return.

Unanimous Decision: When all three judges agree and score the bout for one fighter. Undercard: These are the fights that lead up to the main event. Underdog : This is a label given to a competitor or athlete who is believed to have little or no chance of winning a fight.

Uppercut: A punch thrown in an upward fashion, up the middle of a fighter’s guard, intended to make impact on the point of his chin. It is delivered from a crouched position, with your hands up and, as you twist your upper torso, you extend your hand out and up slightly to make contact. This can be thrown with either hand.

Upstart: A beginning fighter who shows potential. Walkout Bout: Oftentimes, these are fights scheduled as “filler” and when the main bouts end early, they are tacked on at the end of the card to make the fight card last longer. Weight Class: Boxers are categorized and compete in specific weight divisions.

These are weight classifications or “class” for short. Welterweight: Professional boxing competition is divided into weight divisions in order to provide a more “level playing field.” Any boxer weighing 140lbs or less can compete in and is classified as a welterweight. White Collar Boxing: When business professionals, or men and women who have white collar professions, train and box on an amateur level.

Most have had little or no previous boxing experience.

What is a bolo in African?

Bolo is a Yoruba slang which means fool.

Which country speaks Bolo?

Bolo, also known as Ngoya and Kibala, is a Bantu language of Angola that is closely related to Kimbundu.

Why is Amba used?

AMBA simplifies the development of designs with multiple processors and large numbers of controllers and peripherals. However, the scope of AMBA has increased over time, going far beyond just microcontroller devices. Today, AMBA is widely used in a range of ASIC and SoC parts.

What is ARM AMBA?

The Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA) is a freely available, open standard to connect and manage functional blocks in a system-on-chip (SoC). It facilitates the right-first-time development of multiprocessor designs, with large numbers of controllers and peripherals.

What is APB master?

Abstract The APB ( Advanced peripheral bus ) protocol is a part of AMBA(advanced microcontroller bus architecture) family. Design under test (DUT) is tested and it establishes the communication between master (test bench) and slave (design).

How many times can slaves be sold?

They Sold Human Beings Here (Published 2020) Sarah Elizabeth Adams was around 5 when her mother was sold to a slave dealer in Lynchburg, Va. The auction took place in the mid-1840s, in the town of Marion, Va. Sallie, as she was called, was herself sold that day, but not with her mother: A man named Thomas Thurman purchased Sallie to take care of his sick wife.

She would never see her mother again. For the remainder of her childhood, whenever she could, Sallie would slip away and find solace under a tall white-oak tree. All alone, she would wrap her arms around the tree’s wide trunk and cry. The tree became the place where she would recall the names and faces of her family members sold away; a place where she could grieve, but also a place where she could find shade and respite from her sorrow.

This story was told many years later by Sallie’s granddaughter, Evelyn Thompson Lawrence, a local educator and historian in Marion. Thompson’s efforts led to the founding of the Mount Pleasant Heritage Museum — housed in a former black Methodist church that Sallie and other freed men and women founded after the Civil War — to preserve the history and culture of African-Americans in the county.

  • We know that Sallie was sold at an auction held at the Smyth County Courthouse, a brick building that was torn down after the turn of the century, when Marion’s current courthouse was constructed.
  • And yet many details of her story have been lost: We don’t know exactly what happened to Sallie’s mother, or how much Sallie was sold for, or even exactly when the auction took place.

Sallie and her family were among the 1.2 million enslaved men, women and children sold in the United States between approximately 1760 and 1860, according to the historian Michael Tadman. After the American Revolution, cotton production grew rapidly, and demand for enslaved workers on the vast plantations of the Deep South intensified.

This, along with the ban on importation of enslaved Africans that took effect in 1808, largely led to the rapid growth of the domestic slave trade. Auctions and the sales of enslaved people could be found near or along the major ports where enslaved Africans landed, including Richmond, Va.; New Orleans; Savannah, Ga.; and Charleston, S.C.

But the enslaved were also sold in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Jersey and at New York City’s 18th-century open-air Meal Market on Wall Street. The sales took place all over the growing nation — in taverns, town squares and train stations, on riverbanks and by the side of the road.

Before being sold, the enslaved were often kept in pens or private jails, sometimes for days or weeks. Then they were sold directly from the pens or marched to a nearby auction. Thousands of sales took place each year, right in the hearts of American cities and towns, on the steps of courthouses and city halls.

As the historian Steven Deyle puts it, slave auctions were “a regular part of everyday life.” Many American fortunes were made this way. The largest slave-trading firm during the late 1820s and 1830s was Franklin & Armfield, whose Virginia offices and infamous holding pen were located at 1315 Duke Street in Alexandria.

In their heyday, Isaac Franklin and John Armfield sold between 1,000 and 2,000 enslaved people per year, and by the time Franklin died in 1846, his estate was valued at $710,000 — almost $24 million today — a fortune largely earned through the slave trade. A photograph, circa 1865, of the slave-trading firm Price, Birch & Company in Alexandria, Va.

Franklin & Armfield, one of the largest slave trading firms in the country, was headquartered in the same building until it was sold to a partner of Price, Birch & Company. Slave trading was a lucrative business, yet for the enslaved people themselves, the auction block represented a particular horror — the end to life as they knew it.

Family was one of the few bright spots in the long night of slavery, and the auction was the event that ripped enslaved families apart. The very prospect of it cast a specter over the enslaved population like a slowly dilapidating roof: At any time, it could come down and destroy the inhabitants of an already-fragile dwelling.

Sales were so common that some enslaved people could be sold as many as six times in their lives, if not more, often with little warning and no chance to say goodbye. In some cases, infants were literally torn from wailing mothers. We know from enslaved people themselves — the relative few who were able to write or otherwise tell their stories — that the auction block was even more feared than a lashing.

“Common as are slave-auctions in the Southern states,” wrote one formerly enslaved man, Josiah Henson, “the full misery of the event — of the scenes which precede and succeed it — is never understood till the actual experience comes.” The New Deal-era Slave Narratives project, funded by the Works Progress Administration, is full of terrifying memories like this one, from a formerly enslaved woman in Arkansas named Will Ann Rogers: “When Ma was a young woman, she said they put her on a block and sold her.

They auctioned her off at Richmond, Virginia. When they sold her, her mother fainted or dropped dead, she never knowed which. She wanted to go and see her mother lying over there on the ground, and the man what bought her wouldn’t let her. He just took her on.

Drove her off like cattle, I reckon.” After the Civil War, most former auction sites quietly blended into the main streets of today. Except for the occasional marker or museum, there was no record of the horror of separation suffered by many black families. The emphasis on national unity and reconstruction created a desire to paper over the atrocities of the past, and many of these sites were forgotten.

They were not forgotten, though, by the formerly enslaved people who had been sold there, or by their families. Immediately upon Emancipation in 1863 and the end of the war in 1865, many of these newly freed men and women set out on foot searching earnestly for their loved ones, and often the place they sought out first was the auction site.

They took with them a lock of hair, a swath of clothing — small mementos that they had saved. They posted advertisements in newspapers and black churches searching for lost relatives. Their cry was “Help me to find my people,” as the historian Heather Andrea Williams documented in the book of the same name.

A photograph from about 1900 of the auction block on which enslaved people stood when they were sold at the St. Louis Hotel & Exchange in New Orleans. But often the auction site was no longer there to find. The war had laid waste to much of the South; the auction blocks had largely been removed, and the auction houses that still stood had been repurposed.

No one was eager to preserve these sites, or even remember them. And so they disappeared, year by year, generation by generation, until there was no living memory of what happened in these places. Today, only a small minority of these sites have been properly documented, recorded and preserved. There is no online database to find them.

Countless remain completely unknown. When The New York Times Magazine asked the photographer Dannielle Bowman to document some of these sites, it quickly became clear that most of their locations could be pinpointed only through original research. And so for the last five months, my research assistants and I at the Binghamton University/Harriet Tubman Center for the Study of Freedom and Equity have combed through archives — including volumes of narratives of the formerly enslaved, as well as post-Civil War ads placed in newspapers by the enslaved themselves — in an attempt to expand the historical record about America’s slave-auction sites.

  • During that time, we have been able to identify fewer than 50 that have been marked and approximately 30 unmarked ones.
  • Yet these are almost certainly just a fraction of the total, when you consider how many sales took place, over how many decades, during this chapter in American history.
  • Why is it important to excavate these sites? This is a question I have spent a long time considering.

My second book, “The Weeping Time: Memory and the Largest Slave Auction in American History,” was about a horrifying event that took place over two days in Savannah in 1859. Four hundred thirty-six men, women and children, including 30 babies, were sold at the Savannah Ten Broeck Race Course, normally a playground for local elites.

These enslaved men and women, Gullah Geechee African-Americans, had lived together for years on the plantation estates of Pierce Mease Butler, where they forged a community with its own norms, values and customs — many informed by their African heritage. But this auction, which they came to call “the weeping time,” separated them from their families and displaced them from the only “home” they had; it was a decisive moment, maybe the decisive moment, in many of their lives.

Their family bonds may have mattered little to their owners, but they mattered to the enslaved. The extent to which several of them plotted and planned about how to stay together, or went looking for one another after Emancipation, spoke to the strength and resolve of black families.

An advertisement published in The Savannah Republican on Feb.8, 1859, by the slave dealer Joseph Bryan for a two-day auction that became the largest in history. Four hundred thirty-six men, women and children were sold for $303,850, equivalent to about $9.4 million today. Again and again, delving into each site, you find it to be a window into unspeakable suffering but also unimaginable resilience.

Next to the I-95 highway in Richmond, there’s a fenced-in area that for about 20 years starting in the mid-1840s was home to a compound owned by the slave trader Robert Lumpkin. Called Lumpkin’s Jail, it included a pen to hold enslaved people — many of them fugitives — before they were sold in auctions and private sales on the property.

  • The site, one of the few in the country that are marked, is part of a self-guided slavery tour in Richmond.
  • The tour runs through the downtown area called Shockoe Bottom, where auction houses were concentrated.
  • But you could walk through Shockoe Bottom today, a hub of restaurants, clubs and small businesses, and remain completely unaware of this history.

One person held at Lumpkin’s Jail was Anthony Burns, an enslaved person in Richmond who stowed away on a ship in 1854, escaping to Boston. When he was captured shortly after, thousands of local abolitionists tried to prevent him from being re-enslaved, but the courts ordered Burns returned to Virginia, where he was soon jailed in a small cell in Lumpkin’s Jail, painfully manacled much of the time.

The grip of the irons impeded the circulation of his blood, made hot and rapid by the stifling atmosphere, and caused his feet to swell enormously,” reports his biographer, Charles Emery Stevens. Burns was kept in this jail for four months until he was purchased there by a plantation owner from North Carolina.

But he had not been forgotten by a black congregation and other abolitionists in Boston, who purchased his freedom. He went on to study at Oberlin College and spent his final years in Canada as a Baptist preacher. Even well-known sites of slave labor look different when seen through the lens of the auction.

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When Thomas Jefferson died, on July 4, 1826, the enslaved people he owned at Monticello suddenly faced a perilous future. Jefferson’s will freed only five of them, including two children he fathered with Sally Hemings, an enslaved woman at his Monticello plantation. But Jefferson had many debts, and to pay them off, his executors sold 133 people, scattering them across the country.

The first auction was held in 1827, most likely on or near the West Portico steps of the mansion; another followed two years later at the Eagle Tavern, in downtown Charlottesville. Peter Fossett, 11, was among the people sold. His father, Joseph Fossett, had been Monticello’s blacksmith, freed by Jefferson in his will.

  • Although Joseph was able to emancipate much of his family, he was unable to secure freedom for Peter.
  • Peter was purchased by Col.
  • John Jones and unsuccessfully tried to run away twice.
  • In 1850 he was once again put on the auction block, but this time, friends and family were able to purchase his freedom, and 23 years after first being separated from them, Peter finally rejoined his family in Ohio, where they had settled.

He went on to become an ordained minister and a conductor on the Underground Railroad. Some 400,000 people visit Monticello every year, inspired, in part, by Jefferson’s legacy as a founding father and promoter of freedom. They take photographs and stroll up and down the famous West Portico steps — the image depicted on the United States nickel since 1938.

  1. Until they come, visitors most likely have not imagined a slave auction taking place on the property, let alone on those famous stairs.
  2. Perhaps Jefferson’s greatest contribution is not the realization of freedom for all but the creation of a blueprint for future generations to follow.
  3. Spurred on by the pioneering research of Annette Gordon-Reed, Lucia Stanton, Niya Bates and others, Monticello has more fully acknowledged Thomas Jefferson’s legacy as not just the writer of the Declaration of Independence but also an enslaver.

At his plantation, the auctions are described in an exhibit, but in downtown Charlottesville, where the second occurred, there is no specific mention of the auction. An advertisement that appeared in The Charlottesville Central Gazette on Jan.15, 1827, for the sale of Thomas Jefferson’s enslaved workers.

One hundred people were sold that day. The lack of physical markers is just one obstacle to reclaiming the history of America’s slave-sale sites. Quite a few happened in places, including in Northern states, that the general public may not typically associate with slavery. On Main Street in East Brunswick, N.J., for example, a power station now stands on a site that previously was part of the estate of Jacob Van Wickle — a judge in Middlesex County who, along with a few collaborators, perpetrated one of the most infamous slave-selling schemes in the state’s history, selling off some 100 enslaved people in 1818.

At the time, New Jersey was moving to end slavery. State law held that children born to an enslaved woman were free, but had to remain in service to their mothers’ owners until they became adults. There were two loopholes, however. First, if their mothers were sold, their own enslavement could be temporarily extended; second, enslaved people could be moved from the state and remain enslaved, so long as they gave their consent.

Van Wickle used these loopholes with cruel effectiveness. He and his collaborators often signed off on paperwork that moved unwitting people, including mothers and their freeborn children, to the South. Then he sold them to traders and planters in Louisiana, separating them from their families — most of whom would never see them again.

Though there was local outcry when his dealings were discovered, he himself was never punished for his crimes. An 1852 photograph of men in front of the slave pens of Bernard Lynch, who ran one of the largest slave markets in St. Louis. Even though the story of Van Wickle and his slave ring was reported in newspapers at the time and has since been chronicled by historians like James Gigantino, many present-day residents of the area were not aware of many of the story’s details.

  1. But when the Rev. Karen G.
  2. Johnston at the Unitarian Society in East Brunswick learned about it a few years ago, she decided that something had to be done to acknowledge the pain and suffering of those who were sold away.
  3. Two years ago, members of the church, as well as the local N.A.A.C.P., the New Jersey chapter of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society and others, formed the Lost Souls Public Memorial Project, which is developing teaching resources for local schools and is raising funds for a permanent memorial.

On May 25, 2018, members of the project gathered in a solemn ceremony to read the names of people Van Wickle sold into slavery. The names included: Claresse and her son Hercules; Florah and her daughter Susan; Hager and her three children, Roda, Mary and Augustus.

  • I believe by remembering these lost souls back into our community,” Johnston told those who had gathered, “that that is a healing act.” More than a century and a half after Emancipation, there remains much more healing to be done, in part because America has yet to adequately memorialize slavery.
  • At the new Smithsonian National Museum of African-Amerian History and Culture, an entire floor is dedicated to the slave trade and slavery; through the United States National Park Service, we have the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom and the Harriet Tubman Home, which honor and preserve the resistance to slavery.

There are some restored plantations, like the Whitney in Louisiana, that conduct excellent slavery tours. But sites of African-American focus currently represent just 2 percent of those registered on the National Register of Historic Places, and only a portion of those are devoted to slavery — even as some 1,800 monuments to the Confederacy still exist all across the country, an inequality that mirrors the social injustices that have haunted this country since its founding.

How can we create a more equitable map of American history? One clear way to do it would be to provide a fuller accounting of our shared past, one that gives voice to the experience of the enslaved and ensures that their experience will never be forgotten. To look at some of these images, which show former slave-sale sites in the present day, is to grasp how invisible some of American history’s most grievous wounds have become.

If we were to mark all these sites for posterity, we would help to heal their dark legacy, in much the same way that 19th-century abolitionists, both black and white, depicted the trauma of enslaved Africans on the auction block in their art and literature.

  1. By foregrounding the image of an enslaved mother torn from her infant, those abolitionists reminded the public of the horror of slavery and helped influence the course of history.
  2. Their insistence on telling these stories helped America live up to its ideals and made it a more democratic country.
  3. Perhaps marking these sites could do the same.

: They Sold Human Beings Here (Published 2020)

How many slaves fit on a ship?

Between the wars
Southern Africa
Africa and Europe
Central African Kingdoms
Roots of slavery
African slave owners
The East African slave trade
The Atlantic Slave trade
The middle passage
Africa’s losses
African resistence
The end of slavery
The Swahili
West African Kingdoms
The Nile Valley
Early history


The middle passage How many went there At the height of the slave trade in the 18th century an estimated six million Africans were forced to make a journey across the Atlantic often totalling over 4,000 miles. Over 54,000 voyages were made in the course of three hundred years between the 16th and 19th centuries. The large proportion of slaves ended up in the Caribbean, approximately 42%. Around 38% went to Brazil, and much fewer, about 5%, went to North America. The journey from Africa to North America was the longest. The journey could take as little as 35 days, just over a month (going from Angola to Brazil). But normally British and French ships took two to three months. Inside a ship Ships carried anything from 250 to 600 slaves. They were generally very overcrowded. In many ships they were packed like spoons, with no room even to turn, although in some ships a slave could have a space about five feet three inches high and four feet four inches wide. The slaves were kept between the hold and the deck in appalling conditions. Olaudah Equiano gave the first eyewitness account of life on a ship from a slave’s point of view. “I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a salutation in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: so that, with the loathsomeness of the stench, and crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor had I the least desire to taste anything. I now wished for the last friend, death, to relieve me; but soon, to my grief, two of the white men offered me eatables; and on my refusing to eat, one of them held me fast by the hands and laid me across I think the windlass, and tied my feet, while the other flogged me severely. I had never seen among any people such instances of brutal cruelty; and this not only shewn towards us blacks, but also some of the white themselves. One white man in particular I saw, when we were permitted to be on deck, flogged so unmercifully with a large rope near the foremast, that he died in consequence of it.” If sea was rough portholes had to be closed. This often left them gasping for breath and prone to disease.”. the excessive heat was not the only thing that rendered their situation intolerable. The deck, that is the floor of their rooms, was so covered with the blood and mucus which had proceeded from them in consequence of the flux, that it resembled a slaughterhouse.” – Alexander Falconbridge, a surgeon aboard slave ships and later the governor of a British colony for freed slaves in Sierra Leone. Women and men were kept separately. Men were chained together. In some ships there was a place in the bilges for defecating and urinating over the edge of the ship, in others there were brimming buckets. It was very difficult to get to the right place at the right time manacled to other slaves, especially if a slave had diarrhea. After forty or fifty days at sea, the slave ship would stink of urine, faeces, and vomit. As it came into port people could smell it almost before they could see it. Women Women were allowed more freedom than men, being considered less of a threat, and often went out on deck and helped with the cooking. But they paid a price for this in some ships by being the object of constant sexual harassment and even rape, either at the hands of the crew or the captain. Food Food was plentiful although not always of good quality. Daily rations might include yam, biscuits, rice, beans, plantain, and occasionally meat, but the way it was served – one bucket among ten men – induced quarrels and infection. Water was part of daily rations but could be in short supply and unpleasant to drink. The records of one Liverpool slave ship show it carried rather generously a massive 34,000 gallons of water for crew and slaves. Treatment Unless slaves proved rebellious the captain and crew were at pains not to ill treat them. This was not out of kindness but for commercial reasons. If a slave died, money was lost. However, some captains were notoriously brutal to slaves and crew alike. A ship’s surgeon was employed to oversee eating and exercise. Male slaves might be allowed out twice a week on deck and dancing and drumming was encouraged sometimes with words, sometimes with a whip. “Exercise being deemed necessary for the preservation of their health they are sometimes obliged to dance when the weather will permit their coming on deck. If they go about it reluctantly or do not move with agility, they are flogged; a person standing by them all the time with a cat-o’-nine-tails in his hands for the purpose.” – Taken from Alexander Falconbridge, An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa. There are accounts of rebellious slaves being tortured by having hands, arms and legs cut off, on order of the captain as a lesson to the rest of the slaves, and of women being attacked and disfigured. Causes of death The chief causes of death on ship were dysentery, followed by small pox. A third cause was sheer misery; sometimes slaves willed themselves to die out of sheer depression and hopelessness. They would refuse to eat, and the crew would resort to force feeding, or they would jump over the edge and drown in the sea. Losses were recorded but most of these documents have disappeared. It’s estimated that an average of twenty percent of slaves were lost in transit, and as many as half the slaves have been known to die in one journey. The worst moment for crew and slaves alike was leaving the African coast. “From the moment that the slaves are embarked, one must put the sails up. The reason is that these slaves have so great a love for their country that they despair when they see that they are leaving it for ever; that makes them die of grief, and I have heard merchants?say that they died more often before leaving the port than during the voyage. Some throw themselves into the sea, others hit their heads against the ship, others hold their breath to try and smother themselves, others still try to die of hunger from not eating.” – Jacques Savary, businessman, writing at the end of the 18th century.

How many slaves were on a ship at once?

Slave ships ranged in size from the ten-ton Hesketh, which could carry a crew plus thirty captive Africans, to the 566-ton Parr, which carried a crew of 100 and could hold a cargo of as many as 700 enslaved people.

What is APB information?

It is a payment system based on Aadhaar numbers issued by UIDAI & IIN (Institution Identification Number) issued by NPCI. APB System is used by the Government Departments and Agencies for the transfer of benefits and subsidies under Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme launched by Government of India.

What is the full form of APB in restaurants?

Inside APB ( All Plant Based ), Melrose’s New Vegan-Friendly Cocktail Den – Eater LA. Filed under: LA Restaurant Openings.

What are the phases of APB protocol?

The APB Bus Cycle – Each APB bus transaction lasts a minimum of two clock cycles. The first cycle is the setup phase, where the bus master makes a request to read or write to a slave. All subsequent cycles are in the access phase, where the slave and master exchange data (depending on if the transaction is a read or a write).